Antimalarial Potential of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Leaves, Root and Stem-Bark of Vitex doniana

Main Article Content

A. C. V. Uzoho
A. C. Ene
C. U. Igwe

Abstract

Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the antimalarial potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves, root and stem bark of Vitex doniana.

Materials and Methods: Apparently healthy parts of V. doniana (leaves, root and stem bark) were obtained from a farm in Abakaliki, Nigeria. They were air dried and milled into powder and were extracted using methanol and water as solvent respectively. Thirty (30) Swiss male albino mice weighing 15-20 g were used for this study. They were acclimatized for 14 days and randomly divided into 10 groups of 3 mice each. The chloroquine resistant Plasmodium berghei (NK 65) used was obtained from the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. The parasite was maintained by sub-passaging into healthy mice via an intraperitoneal route. Treatment of the animals began 24 hours after infection with the parasite and parasitaemia confirmed. Groups A and B were treated with aqueous and methanol leaf extract of V. doniana respectively. Groups C and D were treated with aqueous and methanol root extract of V. doniana respectively. Groups E and F were treated with aqueous and methanol stem-bark extracts of V. doniana respectively. Groups G, H and I were treated with the standard drugs Artemether, Artesunate and Chloroquine respectively and Group J were administered the vehicle (normal saline) and this group served as the negative control group. The administrations were done once a day for 14 days via the intraperitoneal route. Parasitaemia was monitored in all the groups starting from day 0 to day 14 using thick and thin blood films made from blood obtained from the tail vein of mice.

Results: The infected animals treated with methanol stem bark extract of V. doniana was compared on day 0 and 10, there was a great reduction in parasitaemia level from 5.33±0.58 to 3.33±0.58 as compared to 6.67±1.15 to 43.0 ±2.65 in untreated group and 5.33±0.58 to 5.67±1.15 in Chloroquine treated group.

Conclusion: From the result of this study, it can be said that methanolic extract of V. doniana stem bark is more potent as an antimalarial agent.

Keywords:
Antimalarial potential, Vitex doniana, chloroquine resistant, Plasmodium berghei.

Article Details

How to Cite
C. V. Uzoho, A., C. Ene, A., & U. Igwe, C. (2020). Antimalarial Potential of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Leaves, Root and Stem-Bark of Vitex doniana. Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, 3(1), 18-24. Retrieved from http://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/30108
Section
Original Research Article

References

Autino B, Noris A, Russo R, Castelli F. Epidemiology of malaria in endemic areas. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2012;4(1): e2012060.
DOI: 10.4084/MJHID.2012.060

World Health Organization. Malaria Fact Sheet Report; 2015.
Available:http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2015/report/en/
(Accessed on October 29, 2016)

Ahmed KB. Antibody responses in Plasmodium falciparum malaria and their relation to protection against the disease. A thesis from department of immunology, the Wenner-Green Institute Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 2004.

Wilcox ML, Bodeker G. Traditional herbal medicine for malaria. BMJ. 2004;329:1156-1159.

Nwachukwu N, Iweala EEJ, Asoluka HO. Effects of “lesser known” leafy vegetables (Vitex doniana and Corchorus oletorious) on the oxidative stress indices of albino rats. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2014;4(11):1293-1301.

Kilani AM. Antibacterial assessment of whole stem bark of Vitex doniana against some eterobactericease. Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5:958-960.

Njoku OC, Airaodion AI, Awosanya OO, Ekenjoku JA, Okoroukwu VN, Ogbuagu EO, Nwachukwu N, Igwe CU. Antidiabetic potential of alkaloid extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2019;2(2):1-12.

Beentje HJ. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya. 1994;5:7-11.

Olusola L, Ike CO, Mariam S. Hypoglycemic properties of aqueous bark extract of Ceibapantandra in streptoxotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethno Pharmacology. 2003;84:139-142.

Atawodo SE. Comparative in vitro typanocidal activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of some Nigeria Savannah plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(2):177-182.

Agunu A, Jusuf S, Andrew GO, Zezi AU, Abdurraman EM. Evaluation of five medicinal plants used in diarrhea treatment in Nigeria. Journal of Ethno Pharmacology. 2005;101(1-3):27-30.

Iwueke AV, Nwodo OFC, Okoli CO. Evaluation of the anti- inflammatory and analgesic activities of Vitex doniana leaves. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(20):1929-1935.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (20th Edition), Washington D.C., USA; 2010.

Ene AC, Amah DA, Kwanashie HD, Agomo PU, Atawodi SE. Preliminary in vivo anti-malarial screening of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of fifteen (15) plants grown in Nigeria. Journal Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2008;3: 254-260.

Airaodion AI, Airaodion EO, Ogbuagu U, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu EO. Antimalarial efficacy of ethanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina against Plasmodium berghei in infected Swiss albino mice. International Journal of Bio-science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(8):68-76.

Airaodion AI, Airaodion EO, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U. Antiplasmodial potency of ethanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya against Plasmodium berghei in infected Swiss albino mice. Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice. 2019;2(2):1-8.

Emmanuel IO, Agbafor JI, Omogo S. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research. 2015;10(4):248-250.

Airaodion AI, Olatoyinbo PO, Ogbuagu U, Ogbuagu EO, Akinmolayan JD, Adekale OA, Awosanya OO, Agunbiade AP, Oloruntoba AP, Obajimi OO, Adeniji AR, Airaodion EO. Comparative assessment of phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of Azadirachta indica and Parquetina nigrescens leaves. Asian Plant Research Journal. 2019;2(3):1-14.

Airaodion AI, Ibrahim AH, Ogbuagu U, Ogbuagu EO, Awosanya OO, Akinmolayan JD, Njoku OC, Obajimi OO, Adeniji AR, Adekale OA. Evaluation of phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of Ocimum gratissimum and Telfairia occidentalis leaves. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019;7(1):1-11.
Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i130110

Okwu DE, Ndu CU. Evaluation of the phytonutrients, mineral and vitamin contents of some varieties of yam. International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences. 2006;12:199-203.

Airaodion AI, Airaodion EO, Ewa O, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U. Nutritional and anti–nutritional evaluation of garri processed by traditional and instant mechanical methods. Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;9(4):1-13.

Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002;50:81–82.

Airaodion AI, Obajimi OO, Ezebuiro CN, Ogbuagu U, Agunbiade AP, Oloruntoba AP, Akinmolayan JD, Adeniji AR, Airaodion EO. Prophylactic efficacy of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa leaf against indomethacin-induced ulcer. International Journal of Research. 2019;6(1):87-91.

Airaodion AI, Olayeri IM, Ewa AO, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Akinmolayan JD, Agunbiade AP, Oloruntoba AP, Airaodion EO, Adeniji AR, Obajimi OO, Awosanya OO. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf potential in the prevention of peptic ulcer in Wistar rats. International Journal of Research. 2019;6(2):579- 584.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Agunbiade AP, Oloruntoba AP, Mokelu IP, Ekeh SC. Investigation of aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale root potential in the prevention of peptic ulcer in albino rats. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science. 2019;4(2):64-67.

Nyarko AA, Addy, ME. Effects of aqueous extract of Adeniacissampeloides on blood pressure and serum analyte of hypertensive patients. Phytotherapy Research. 1990;4(1):25-28.

Sayyah M, Hadidi N, Kamalinejad M. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Lactuca sativa seed extract in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;92: 325-329.