Main Article Content
With seemingly increasing global demands for crude oil, its related products have become a major threat with preponderant deleterious effects on human environmental health. Current study investigated the effects of crude oil exploration and exploitation activities on Okpai community in Ndokwa East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Using the purposive sampling technique, about one hundred (100) residents of Okpai community who have lived there (or in the Niger Delta) for 3 or more years were ethically recruited from an estimated population of 7, 000 inhabitants of the target community (Okpai) for this study. Participants were then recruited into three focus groups; each consisting of individuals who met the selection criteria. The groups were gathered prior to conducting an oral interview. Socio-demographic, variables were then obtained after which informed consents and ethical approval was given. Participants were immediately issued questionnaires to obtain relevant information relating to oil exploration activities in their community with reference to daily changes. Group 1 consisted of equal numbers of interviewees of age 18-30 (50%); whereas, groups 2 and 3 comprised of larger proportion of participants between 31-45 (50%) and 45-60 (83%) respectively. Obtained data were then analysed and expressed as mean ± Standard deviation of simple percentage, while presenting in statistical tables and chats. Following careful observation, study revealed a statistically significant (p<0.5) increase in the effect of oil exploration on most of the activities of Okpai community, indicative from respondents that crude oil exploration greatly negatively affected Okpai community activities. Study also demonstrated the perception of participants on the effect of oil exploration activities on the physical health of the inhabitants within the study area. Psycho-social effect of exposure to oil-related environmental degradation amongst individuals in developing nations is also recommended for future investigations relating to this topic.
Amodeo C. Top 10 largest energy consumers: Million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2002. Geographical. 2006;78(4).
Safina C. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil well blowout: A little hindsight. PLoS Biology. 2011;9(4).
Owen NA, Inderwildi OR, King DA. The status of conventional world oil reserves – Hype or cause for concern? Energy Policy. 2010;38(8):4742-4749.
Oyesola D. Toxicology and sustainable development discourse: Challenges for Toxicologists in Nigeria. Archives of Basic and Applied Medicine. 2014;2(1):1-8.
Al-Jahdali MO, Bisher AS. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) accumulation in soil and plant’s leaves around an oil refinery: A case study from Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Environmental Science. 2008;4(1):84-88.
Dell M. The devil’s excrement: The negative effect of natural resources on development. Harvard International Review. 2004;26(4):38-41.
Sako EB. Public health implications of oil pollution in Koluama: Nigeria. Dissertation thesis, Walden University; 2017.
Miller KA, Siscovick DS, Sheppard L, Sheppard K, Sullivan JH, Anderson GL, Kaufman JD. Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women. The New England Journal of Medicine (Research Support, NIH. Extramural Research Support, U.S Govt Non-PHS). 2007;356 (5):447-458.
Anderson GL, Kaufman JD. Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women. The New England Journal of Medicine (Research Support, NIH. Extramural Research Support, U.S Govt. Non-PHS). 2007; 356(5): 447-458.
Olobaniyi SB, Efe SI. Comparative assessment of rainwater and groundwater quality in an oil producing area of Nigeria: environmental and health implications. Journal of Environmental Health and Res. 2007;6(2):111-118.
Oseji OJ. Environmental impact of gas flaring within Umutu-Ebedei gas plant in Delta State, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2011;3(6):272-279.
Akpomuvie OB. Tragedy of commons: Analysis of oil spillage, gas flaring and sustainable development of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 2011;4(2):200-210.
Heubeck M, Camphuysen KCJ, Bao R, Humple D, Sandoval A, Cadiou B, Brager S. Assessing the impact of major oil spills on seabird populations. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2003;46(7):900-902.
McMichael AJ. Population health as the “bottom line” of sustainability: Contemporary challenge for public health researchers. European Journal of Public Health. 2006;16(6):579-582.
Lord Nick. Binomial averages when the mean is an integer, mathematical gazette. 2010;94:331-332.
Zhang L, Wang XD, Baccarelli A. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenics. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2011;41(1):1- 27.
Ana GR, Sridhar MK, Bamgboye EA. Environmental risk factors and health outcomes in selected communities of the Niger delta area, Nigeria. Perspectives in Public Health. 2009;129(4):183-191.
Abdul-Wahab S, Sappurd A, Sardar S, Irfan N. Impacts on ambient air quality due to flaring activities in one of Oman’s oilfields. Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health. 2012;67(1):3-14.
Grattan LM, Roberts S, Mahan WT, McLaughlin PK, Otwell WS, Morris G. The early psychological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon spill on Florida and Alabama Communities. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2011;119(6):838- 843.