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Background: There is a considerable increase in mortality caused by malaria due to the rapid spread of drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. The parasites have developed resistance to orthodox drugs over the years, thus the need for herbal remedy.
Aim: This study therefore sought to investigate the antiplasmodial properties of ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seed against Plasmodium berghei in infected Swiss albino mice.
Methods: G. kola seeds were air-dried and ground to fine powder using a blender. The powder was extracted using ethanol as the solvent. Sixty Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups of ten each. Each mouse in groups 2 to 6 was inoculated intraperitoneally with infected blood suspension containing about 1x107Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cells on day zero while those in group 1 were not infected and this served as the normal control group. Animals in group 2 were administered 0.2 mL normal saline, those in group 3 were administered Chloroquine diphosphate at 5 mg/kg body weight, those in groups 4, 5 and 6 were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of G. kola seed extract respectively. All treatments were orally done twelve hourly for five consecutive days from when parasites were first seen in the infected animal blood. Parasitaemia count and packed cell volume were done using standard methods.
Results: G. kola extract exhibited antimalarial properties especially at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and the results were not different from that of chloroquine.
Conclusion: The result of this study showed that ethanolic extract of G. kola seed possesses antiplasmodial properties against P. berghei in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum antimalarial potency of plant extracts and standard antimalarial drugs can be derived when dosage is completed.
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