Toxicological Effects of Overdose of Some Herbal Bitters Commonly Consumed in South Southern Nigeria

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Kemzi N. Elechi-Amadi
Ojoye N. Briggs
Boma H. Opusunju
Nimisoere P. Batubo
Ruth R. Ubulom
Queen E. Solomon


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of overdose of Action Bitters and Goko Cleanser on hepatic, renal and haematological indices.

Methodology: Thirty-five (35) male albino wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. The six treatment groups were given the herbal extracts for four weeks while the control group was given distilled water. The study was carried in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, between June and August, 2019. Biochemical parameters were assayed using Mindray biochemistry analyzer while haematological parameters were assayed using Sysmex analyzer.

Results: There were significant increases in hepatic parameters (AST, ALT and ALP), renal parameters (Urea and Creatinine) and significant decreases in haematological indices (PCV and HB) in the treated groups, except for the normal dose weekly treatment group.

Conclusion: Long-term use or overdose of the herbal mixtures can lead to alterations in hepatic, renal and haematological indices.

Action bitters, Goko Cleanser, herbal medicine, toxicological effects, overdose, Nigeria.

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How to Cite
Elechi-Amadi, K. N., Briggs, O. N., Opusunju, B. H., Batubo, N. P., Ubulom, R. R., & Solomon, Q. E. (2020). Toxicological Effects of Overdose of Some Herbal Bitters Commonly Consumed in South Southern Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, 3(2), 35-39. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


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