Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice 2019-09-07T08:22:07+00:00 Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJMPCP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of Medical Science and Clinical Practice.&nbsp;AJMPCP will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. AJMPCP&nbsp;is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Practice of Nursing Mothers towards Umbilical Cord Care in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State 2019-05-31T09:19:12+00:00 I. E. Udosen T. Olaoye E. E. Esienumoh G. E. Udosen Dennis Amaechi <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study determined how Nigerian nursing mothers deal with umbilical cord care.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a descriptive cross sectional study on 388 Nigerian nursing mothers. Study population was randomly selected using multistage sampling technique. A validated semi-structured questionnaire was performed and data was analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Most mothers (380 (97.9%)) cleaned babies’ cord. It was 59 (15.2%) mothers who did not clean the cord at every time of changing the diaper. Regarding hand hygiene, only 88 (22.7%) washed their hands with soap. Only 217 (55.9%) cleaned the base of the cord first before the cleaning the surrounding skin. A razor was used to cut the cord in 186 (47.9%). Cord was clamped in 373 (96.1%), and cord clamp was made by tying the cord. A few mothers (131 (22.8%)) used chlorhexidine to the cord disinfaction, while 116 (29.9%) still used herbs. There was a significant relationship between levels of education, income, number of children on cord care practice (P=0.00, 0.00, 0.019).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Many women in this area dealt with the cord in their own way and the incidence of chlorhexidine use, which is a recommended disinfection, was very low. Safety cord procedure/disinfection should be urgently educated. The present data may be useful to further making health policy strategy regarding cord hygiene in this area. This data may be also generalizable to any other developing countries.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of PD-L2 Gene Expression in Patients with NSCLC-type Subclasses of Lung Cancer Using Real-Time PCR 2019-07-18T09:02:36+00:00 Milad Jafarikia Mojtaba Haji Mazdarani Seyed Alireza Janani Fahimeh Nemati <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Lung cancer is one of the biggest health problems in the world. Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), which account for approximately 85% of lung cancer cases, are the leading cause of deaths due to cancer worldwide. The type 1planned death molecule (PD-I, CD279) and its <em>PD-L1</em> ligands (B7-H1, CD274) and PD-L2 (B7-DC, CD273) are the key molecules inhibiting the immune regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of <em>PD-L2</em> gene and the evaluation of cancerous stages of NSCLC and its subclasses in lung cancer patients in Tehran hospitals using Real-Time PCR.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A total of 35 clinical samples were collected from patients with NSCLC-derived lung cancer from three hospitals in Tehran (Khatam, Athiyah and Masih Hospitals). Of the 35 samples obtained in 2017, 20% of them were women and 80% were men. The age range of patients varied from 37 to 80 years. The disease grade gradients among the patients in this investigation varied and 22 different grades were observed. To investigate the <em>PDL-2</em> gene expression, after extraction of total RNA and cDNA synthesis using Real-Time PCR, the expression of the gene was investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> 74% of adenocarcinoma cases were in T-categories of lung cancer and 25% of patients were in grade IIIa. Patients with T3 stage had four samples, 2 of which were adenocarcinoma and other 2 samples being SCC and their age ranged from 55 to 62 years old. Three patients were in the T1 category, of which 100% had adenocarcinoma. The results showed that expression of <em>PD-L2</em> gene was increased 5.45 fold among patients with NSCLC-type lung cancer compared to those with normal condition.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>PD-L2</em> expression detection methods, including the detection of mRNA expression by using Real-Time PCR and the use of multiple systems for detecting <em>PD-L2</em> expression with cell type and in association with other immune markers, can make a deeper understanding of <em>PD-L2</em> as a biomarker and help to diagnose lung tumors of the NSCLC type. In our studies, it was found that expression of <em>PD-L2</em> gene in cancer patients is higher than normal conditions.</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antiplasmodial Potency of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Carica papaya against Plasmodium berghei in Infected Swiss Albino Mice 2019-08-29T12:30:47+00:00 A. I. Airaodion E. O. Airaodion J. A. Ekenjoku E. O. Ogbuagu U. Ogbuagu <p><strong>Background: </strong>Malaria is still considered a major public health problem in developing countries. The malaria parasite has develop resistant to orthodox drugs over the years, thus need for herbal remedy.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study is aimed at investigating the antiplasmodial potency of ethanolic leaf extract of <em>Carica papaya </em>against <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>in infected Swiss albino mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fresh and health leaves of <em>C. papaya</em> free from disease were harvested from the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. They were air dried, milled into powder and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as the solvent. Thirty Swiss albino mice weighing obtained from the Federal University of Agriculture<em>,&nbsp;</em>Abeokuta<em>,</em> were acclimatized for seven (7) days and divided into six groups. Each mouse in groups 2 to 6 was inoculated intraperitoneally with infected blood suspension containing about 1x10<sup>7</sup> <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>parasitized red blood cells on day zero while those in group 1 were not infected and this served as the normal control group. Animals in group 2 were administered 0.2 ml normal saline, those in group 3 were administered Chloroquine diphosphate at 5 mg/kg body weight; those in groups 4, 5 and 6 were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the ethanolic leaf extract respectively. All treatments were orally done once per day for five consecutive days from when parasites were first seen in the infected animal blood. Parasitemia Count and PCV were done using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>C. papaya</em> extract exhibited antimalarial properties especially at 200 and 400 mg/kg and the results were not different from that of chloroquine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The result of this present study confirmed that ethanolic leaf extract of <em>C. papaya</em> which displayed good activities against <em>P. berghei </em>are suitable for their traditional use in the treatment of malaria fever.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Therapeutic Effects of Viscum album Combined with Zingiber officinale against CCL4 Induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats 2019-09-07T08:22:07+00:00 Roseline Emeji Ndokiari Biosa Tamuno-Emine Davies Gabriel <p>This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of Viscum album (mistletoe) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) in treating Rat liver against CCL<sub>4</sub>-induced liver injury. Mistletoe and ginger are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders, including hepatic disorders.&nbsp; Biochemical parameters and histological structure were assessed and used as a measure of the therapeutic potential of the herbs against CCL<sub>4</sub>-induced liver injury. The experimental animals (15 male wistar Albino Rats) weighing between 100-120 g were randomly divided into nine (3) groups.&nbsp; Each group comprised 5 rats and was labelled as group 1, 2 or 3. Group 1 (negative control) animals were administered saline orally daily for 6 weeks (1ml volume per kg body weight) while group 2 (CCL<sub>4 </sub>group) animals were administered CCL<sub>4</sub> mixed with olive oil as the vehicle in 1:1 ratio (3 ml/kg body weight). Group 3 represented the treatment group with extracts of the two herbal plants (250mg/kg daily). The combined herbal extracts administered orally for 6 weeks showed a significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in the concentrations or activities of liver function parameters including serum ALT, ALP, AST and GGT activities and serum protein, albumin, and bilirubin concentrations as compared with the marked increases in the parameters in CCL<sub>4</sub>-only treated rats. Histological examination of the liver of CCL<sub>4</sub>–treated rats with the combined herbal extracts showed less destruction of liver architecture in comparison to the group treated with CCL<sub>4 </sub>only. The results indicated that the combined herbal extracts investigated (mistletoe, and ginger) had a therapeutic effect against CCL<sub>4</sub>-induced liver injury and this effect could be due to the phytochemicals present in the herbs.</p> 2019-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##