Excess Adiposity in Post-Menopausal Women: An Assesment of Prevalence and Factors in Rural Bangladesh
Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Volume 6, Issue 2,
Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with excess adiposity (excess body fat) in post-menopausal women in rural Bangladesh. Results showed that older post-menopausal women had higher rates of excess adiposity and that socioeconomic and demographic variables were also associated with it. The study suggests that post-menopausal women in rural Bangladesh may be at increased risk of excess adiposity and related health issues and highlights the need for interventions to address this issue.
Objectives: This study examines differences in body measurements and excess body fat among post-menopausal women in rural Bangladesh, with a focus on age-specific variations.
Materials and Methods: The study looks at excess body fat in post-menopausal rural Bangladeshi women and its association with factors such as age, education level, and income. A purposive sampling method was used, 102 women were sampled and measured for body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio. Co-morbidity risk related to excess adiposity was also analyzed.
Results: This study analyzed anthropometric data of 102 postmenopausal rural women in Bangladesh to compare measurements like weight, height, BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio between different age groups and found significant differences between groups. The study also found a negative correlation between age at menopause and weight, BMI, and WHR and majority of the women were in normal or low-risk categories for nutritional and health risks.
Conclusion: This study found that post-menopausal women in rural Bangladesh have significant differences in weight, BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio based on their age and that excess adiposity may negatively impact their health. It suggests interventions may be necessary and highlights the need for further research on menopausal health and its relation to socioeconomic and cultural factors.
- Excess adiposity
- waist circumference
How to Cite
Sherman S. Defining the menopausal transition. American Journal of Medicine. 2005;118:3-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.11.002.
Phipps AI, Ichikawa L, Bowles EJ, Carney PA, Kerlikowske K, Miglioretti DL, Buist DS. Defining menopausal status in epidemiologic studies: A comparison of multiple approaches and their effects on breast cancer rates. Maturitas. 2010;67: 60-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.04.015.
Bogin S, Smith BH. Evolution of the human life cycle. In I. Sara, S. Barry, B. Dennis O'R (Eds.), Human Biology: An Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspective. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 2012; 377-424.
Peacock K, Ketvertis KM. Menopause. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): Stat Pearls; 2019. Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507826/
World Health Organization. Research on menopause in the 1990s. Report of a WHO scientific group, WHO Technical Report Series, 866. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1996.
Dalal PK, Agarwal M. Postmenopausal syndrome. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2015;57(Suppl. 1):S222-S232.
Dasgupta D, Ray S. Menopausal problems among rural and urban women from Eastern India. Journal of Social Behavior and Health Sciences. 2009;3: 20-33. DOI: 10.5590/JSBHS.2009.03.1.02.
Karunakaran CG, Urooj A. Obesity status and lifestyle pattern of pre-post menopausal urban-employed women of Mysore city, India. Advances in Obesity, Weight Management & Control. 2017;6: 47-57. DOI: 10.15406/aowmc.2017.06.00148.
Sinha I, Sen J. Factors affecting menopause among Rajbanshi women of North Bengal. Human Biology Review. 2017;6:387-402.
Towner MC, Nenko I, Walton SE. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 2016;371:20150147. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0147.
Sapre S, Thakur R. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause. Journal of Midlife Health. 2019;5:3-5. DOI: 10.4103/0976-7800.127779.
Soules MR, Sherman S, Parrott E, Rebar R, Santoro N, Utian W, Woods N. Executive summary: Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW). Fertility and Sterility. 2001;76:874-8.
Brinton R. Neuroendocrinology of Ageing. In Fillit HM, Rockwood K, & Woodhouse K (Eds.), Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. Elsevier, New York. 2010;163-169.
Harlow SD, Gass M, Hall JE, Lobo R, Maki P, Rebar RW, Sherman S, Sluss PM, de Villiers TJ. Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop +10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. Menopause. 2012;19(4):387-395. Available:https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e31824d8f40
Santoro N, Epperson CN, Mathews SB. Menopausal symptoms and their management. Endocrine and Metabolic Clinical of North America. 2015;44(2):497-515. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2015.05.001
Sengupta A, Srinivasan N. Predicting menopausal health in a diverse population group through a theoretical linear model. Health. 2010;2(11):1320-1326. Available:https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2010.211197
Gold EB, Crawford SL, Avis NE, Crandall CJ, Matthews KA, Waetjen LE, Lee JS, Thurston R, Vuga M, Harlow SD. Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses from SWAN. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2013; 178(1):70-83. Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kws421
Gold EB. The Timing of the age at which natural menopause occurs. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 2012;38(2):425-440. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ogc.2011.05.002
Tanko LB, Christiansen C, Cox DA, Geiger MJ, McNabb MA, & Cummings SR. Relationship between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2005;20(11): 1912-1920. Available:https://doi.org/10.1359/JBMR.050711
Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. Health benefits of physical activity; the evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2006;174(9):801-809. Available:https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.051351
World Health Organization. The Asia Pacific Perspective: Redefining Obesity and its treatment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.
WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. The Lancet. 2004; 363(9411):157-163. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15268-3
Chan R, Woo J. Prevention of overweight and obesity: how effective is the current public health approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010;7(3):765-783.
Banack HR, Wende WJ, Hovey KM, Stokes A. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women? Menopause. 2018;25(3):307-313. DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000989
Singh S, Kaur N, Sharma RS. Waist-hip ratio and waist circumference as simple measures of cardiovascular risk assessment and weight management among medical students. Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2018;5:237-242. DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2018/49
Unii J. Third consensus meeting of Indian Menopause Society (IMS) 2008: A summary. Journal of Midlife Health. 2010; 1:43-47. DOI: 10.4103/0976-7800.66987
Shobeiri F, Jenabi E, Khatiban M, Hazavehei SM, Roshanaei G. The effect of educational program on quality of life in menopausal women: a clinical trial. Journal of Menopausal Medicine. 2017; 23:91-95. DOI: 10.6118/jmm.2017.23.2.91
Franceschi S, Favero A, La Vecchia C, Barón AE, Negri E, Dal Maso L, Amadori D. Body size indices and breast cancer risk before and after menopause. International Journal of Cancer. 1996; 67(2):181-186.
Marjani A, Moghasemi S. The metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Gorgan. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2012;953627. DOI: 10.1155/2012/953627
Praveena D. Nutritional status index of postmenopausal and premenopausal women. Food Science Research Journal. 2014;5(2):106-109. DOI: 10.15740/HAS/FSRJ/5.2/106-109
Sinha I, Mondal N, Sen J. Effects of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle variables on overweight and obesity among rural Rajbanshi postmenopausal women of India. Anthropologischer Anzeiger. 2018;75(3): 251-262.
Landau C, Cyr MG, Moulton AW. Review and notes: The complete book of menopause, every woman’s guide to good health. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995;122(5):398. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-122-5-199503010-00031
Nuttall FQ. Body mass index, obesity, BMI and health: A critical review. Nutrition Today. 2015;50(2):117-128. DOI: 10.1097/NT.0000000000000092
WHO Expert Consultation. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2008.
Javoor D, Malagi U, Naik R, Kasturiba. Nutritional status of menopausal women. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;21(2):152-154.
Roeca C, Al-Safi Z, Santoro N. The postmenopausal women. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, & A. Boyce (Eds.), Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth, MA: MDText.com, Inc.; 2018. Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279131/ PMID: 25905354.
Abstract View: 41 times
PDF Download: 26 times