Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice 2022-08-06T11:09:37+00:00 Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJMPCP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of Medical Science and Clinical Practice.&nbsp;AJMPCP will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. AJMPCP&nbsp;is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Competency Based Medical Education: Notion Put To Play 2022-07-11T07:36:30+00:00 Adiesh Sood <p>The “Type of Article” of this paper is “Letter to the Editor”. This paper discuses about: “Competency Based Medical Education: Notion Put To Play”. No formal abstract is available. Readers are requested to read the full article.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Case Report on Talonavicular Arthritis 2022-04-26T11:09:47+00:00 Nandini Pandey N. Yamini Sarojini K. Samyuktha T. Akhila Sailasree <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Talonavicular Arthritis is a condition in which (talonavicular joint undergoes deform) arthritis occurs in the talonavicular joint leading to joint inflammation and severe pain. Talonavicular arthritis can be caused by the conditions involving cartilage damage.some of the etiologies of talonavicular arthritis includes congenital (clubfoot, talocalcaneal and calcaneal -scaphoid coalitions), post traumatic (scaphoid fractures, chopart fractures-luxation, talus fractures etc). The symptoms of talonavicular arthritis includes swelling,pain and stiffness. The early diagnosis is most important to identify joint injury by X-rays,CT scans, MRI. Medical treatment for talonavicular arthritis includes analgesics and NSAID’s. Surgical procedures like arthrodesis can be performed when medical treatment&nbsp; fail to improve the conditions.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation: </strong>The patient was 64 years old male patient who has classical presentation of talonavicular arthritis .He had complained of pain in the left foot and pain on weight bearing&nbsp; since a fall&nbsp; 6 years back.Patient had a history of fall from bike which caused traumatic injury and lead to Talonavicular Arthritis. Radiographs and Computed Tomography (CT) scans revealed Arthritis of talonavicular bone MRI revealed the mild arthritic change in talonavicuar joint .Patient have been advised to undergone arthrodesis of&nbsp; talonavicular jont.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Talonavicular arthrodesis is one of the most effective procedures for the treatment of traumatic talonavicular arthritis by providing the functional improvement and by reducing the pain.</p> 2022-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Case Report on Lupus Panniculitis - A Rare Type of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 2022-05-18T10:20:24+00:00 Jaseen M. James Jasmitha M. James Varsha Dalal AHMV Swamy <p>Lupus panniculitis is an infrequent form of systemic lupus erythematosus.&nbsp; The relapsing nature of skin lesions can make the treatment more challenging. We report a case of 6-year-old female child with systemic lupus panniculitis. The child presented with wounds all over the body initially notedover the scalp and axilla region. The child was managed with steroids, anti-malarials and immunosuppressants including vitamin supplements. Ensuring the psychological wellbeing of the child is also a considered constituent in the care plan.&nbsp; Medication non-adherence of the patient was one of the boundaries of the treatment.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Importance of Testing for Maternal-fetal Transmitted Infectious Diseases in the Case of a Sars COV-2 Infected Pregnant Women 2022-06-03T08:02:18+00:00 Mihaela Corina Radu Corneliu Nicolae Zaharia Calin Adrian Boeru Anca Irina Dumitrescu Melania Elena Pop-Tudose Loredana Sabina Cornelia Manolescu <p>Maternal-fetal transmission of infectious diseases during the pregnancy poses a risk for the pregnant woman and for the future baby as well. The present case highlights the importance of testing during the pregnancy for all the infectious diseases included in the TORCH panel. We will consider the case of a 26-year-old woman, obese, at the third pregnancy, without co-morbidities or complications. She presented at the Emergency Room at 25 weeks of gestation with vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swabs collected at the moment of admission were positive for SARS CoV-2. The fetus was not alive. The first intention was inducing the childbirth, but as this procedure did not work hysterectomy was performed at two days of admission. The decision was made as a result of altered maternal health.&nbsp; The patient presented with persistent hypoxia, tachypnoea and to prevent acute respiratory decompensation the patient was transferred to the intensive care and intubated. Despite maximum ventilator support, she suffered a cardiopulmonary collapse and died within 24 hours of intubation after all failed resuscitation efforts. The patient was not vaccinated against COVID-19 and did not present other TORCH infectious diseases.The presented case highlights the importance of testing for COVID-19 in pregnancy.</p> 2022-06-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Being Vaccinated on Respiratory Mechanics and Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 2022-04-26T06:55:06+00:00 Bayrakçı Sinem Bayrakçı Onur <p><strong>Background: </strong>The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease that affects the human population globally and often causes the death of hundreds of thousands of people with lung involvement. In recent years, it is an unprecedented reason for occupancy in hospital wards and intensive care units.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>In this study, it was aimed to compare the lung dynamics, prognosis, and mortality of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients in the intensive care unit.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units between August 1, 2021 and September 30, 2021 were retrospectively examined.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials: </strong>A total of 197 vaccinated and unvaccinated patients over 18 years of age, with positive Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests, and hospitalized in the intensive care unit were included in the study. Age, gender, comorbidity, vaccination, oxygen support, mechanical ventilator parameters, intubation times, radiology data and mortality of the patients included in the study were examined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study, COVID-19 disease is more common in male gender, patients over 65 years of age and those with comorbidities. Unvaccinated patients are 4 times more likely vaccinated patients to be in intensive care. Almost all patients need oxygen support, but intubation is more often in unvaccinated patients. Mortality rates in the intensive care unit; it was found in 18% vaccinated patients, 64% unvaccinated patients, 53.8% overall. The most common causes of mortality were Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Severe ARDS is more often to unvaccinated patients. Lung dynamic compliance &lt;18 mL/cmH<sub>2</sub>O is related with mortality. Severe lung damage on Computed Tomography (CT) score is related with ARDS and mortality. Mortality is more often to unvaccinated patients.</p> 2022-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Left Ovarian Torsion: A Case Report 2022-04-28T07:18:41+00:00 K. Samyuktha Nandini Pandey T. Akhila Sailasree C. Deepthi C. Bhargav Reddy <p>Ovarian torsion accounts for more than 3% of gynecological emergencies with an incidence, among all ages of women, of 5.9 per 100,000 women. This affection can be simply defined as twisting of the ovary around its ligamentous support, often resulting in impedance of its blood supply which can lead to ovarian necrosis, infection and peritonitis. Ovarian torsion is mainly associated with presence of benign ovarian masses, as malignant tumors are less frequent and less prone to undergo ovarian torsion. This is why this complication needs to be diagnosed as early as possible to preserve the function of ovaries and fallopian tubes and to prevent necrosis. Some of the surgical procedures available to untwist the ovary are laparoscopy and laparotomy. If there is prolonged loss of blood flow to the ovary and surrounding tissue then the procedures like oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are suggested.</p> 2022-04-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biomedical Waste Management: What do Medical Doctors and Nurses in a Nigerian Tertiary Healthcare Facility Know? 2022-05-27T09:28:36+00:00 Queencallista N. Sidney-Nnebue Chinomnso C. Nnebue Daniel C. Anh Onyinye M. Azi Chika D. Asobie Callista C. Anyanwu <p><em></em></p> <p><strong>Background: </strong>Health care service providers aim at managing diseases and health related conditions. In this quest, they albeit inevitably generate wastes, some of which have potentials of causing harm to them, co- workers, clients, patients and the public.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the awareness and knowledge of biomedical waste management among doctors and nurses at a tertiary healthcare facility in Owerri, Nigeria.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This was a facility- based cross sectional survey of 287 health care service providers (108 Medical Doctors and 179 Nurses). Enrollment was via multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using self- administered semi-structured questionnaires, and analysed using statistical package for social sciences software version 22. Chi-square test was used to determine statistical significance and at p value <u>&lt;</u> 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Majority, 273 (95.1%) respondents reported awareness of BWM. The commonest source of information on BWM was 235 (86.1%) from undergraduate training. Also, 160 (55.8%) of them had good knowledge scores on BWM, 103 (35.9%) had been trained on BWM, while knowledge grade significantly vary with ever trained on BWM (p=0.001).Occupation was significantly associated with awareness that BW minimization is a role for Medical Doctors and Nurses.</p> <p><em><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study found apparently high awareness of BWM and fair level of knowledge. Awareness on BW minimization as a role for Medical Doctors and Nurses is associated with occupation and so do knowledge grade and ever trained on BWM. There is need for regular, comprehensive but occupation specific training on BWM.</em></p> 2022-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Some Cytokines in Pateints with Schizophrenia after Antipsychotic Therapy in Southeast, Nigeria 2022-05-30T07:41:19+00:00 Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu Bessie Nonyelum Esimai Loveth Ngozika Ugwu Gina Flor Ramos Stephen Dotun Adetoye Emmanuel Chukwuma Edupute <p>The aim of the current study was to evaluate neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the levels of IL-6, TNF- \(\alpha\) in patients with schizophrenia after six weeks of antipsychotic treatment with Risperidone and Clozapine. Total study sample of 50 subjects of schizophrenia patients and 50 apparently healthy subjects aged 25-60 years were recruited in this study. The cytokines 6 were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The results showed increase in WBC (P=0.001), absolute neutrophil (P=0.000), NLR (P=0.025), IL-6 (P=0.000) and no significant difference in TNF- \(\alpha\) (P=0.059) and no significant difference in absolute lymphocyte of schizophrenia patients before treatment compared to after treatment In conclusion, there were significantly higher values in IL-6, WBC and Neutrophil levels of schizophrenic drug naïve subjects when compared with schizophrenic treated subjects. Tumour Necrosis Factor - alpha serum levels among schizophrenic drug naïve subjects and schizophrenic drug treated subjects showed similar mean values.</p> 2022-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Computer Officers: A Cross-sectional Evaluation of Prevalence and Risk Factors in a Developing Country along with Validation of Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire 2022-06-04T08:11:14+00:00 Mehnaz Munir Huma Tabassam Muhammad Aslam Bajwa Sana Mushtaq <p><strong>Background: </strong>Due to an increase in the use of a computer at work musculoskeletal symptoms are becoming very common and are well known for sickness absenteeism. Musculoskeletal symptoms usually occur in the upper parts of the body because of their continuous involvement in completing any computer-related task. The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and validation of a modified Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ) questionnaire were not previously done in Asian countries like Pakistan before.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To find out the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to ascertain the factors affecting work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among computer workers along with the MUEQ questionnaire validation.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated questionnaire (MUEQ) along with some changes, from July 2017 to February 2018 in Lahore. 326 computer workers between 18 to 49 years of age and having at least one year of work experience were evaluated for computer-associated musculoskeletal problems.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The lifetime prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was 62.6% while prevalence within the last week was 30.7% in the study population. MUEQ total scoring (p&lt;0.001), years of the job (p=0.038), working days (p&lt;0.001), and working hours per day (p=0.038) were related to the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The musculoskeletal complaints were more related to the workstation control, body posture, job demand, and the number of days and hours spend using computer. Adequate steps for the prevention of these symptoms should be taken to increase the economic productivity of employees.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Medical Doctors at a Tertiary Health Care Facility in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria 2022-06-17T08:34:30+00:00 Ozori Ebiogbo S. Osegi Nkencho Makinde Olakunle Unachukwu Chidozie Adhuze Judith Akanatei Daniel Ofuruma Ninabai <p><strong>Background: </strong>One of the pillars of prevention is COVID-19 vaccination. Nonetheless, there are lots of skepticism in taking the vaccine in the populace even among health workers especially as it relates to the safety profile of the vaccine. Generally, the populace look up to the medical doctor for advice, therefore hesitancy amongst doctors to the vaccine use may translate to hesitancy among the population.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To assess COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, identify factors militating against vaccine uptake and the reasons for taking the vaccine among medical practitioners at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>This was a descriptive cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This was a study carried out among medical doctors at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa state, Nigeria, between June and July, 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Questionnaires were used to obtain data from 102 participants recruited by consecutive sampling. The questionnaires contained the socio-demographic, medical history of the respondents, factors militating against COVID-19 vaccine uptake and the reasons for taking the vaccine.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 102 medical doctors participated in the survey. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was as high as 70.6% among the participants. The commonest reason for not accepting the vaccine was that the vaccine had not undergone sufficient clinical trial (40.3%). The most common reason for accepting the vaccine among vaccinated participants was to have a travel pass to other countries (73.3 %).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is very high among medical practitioners from this study. The novelty of the disease and the speed of vaccine development leaves a doubt about whether the vaccine has undergone sufficient clinical trial and on the safety of the vaccine. Doctors who intend to emigrate for better career opportunities dominate vaccine acceptors from this study.</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Uptake and Side effects Profile of COVID-19 Vaccine amongst Medical Doctors at a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria 2022-06-17T08:54:31+00:00 Ozori Ebiogbo S. Kuete Ebieritei S. Atemie Gordons Osegi Nkencho Makinde Olakunle I. Unachukwu Chidozie Adhuze Judith <p><strong>Background: </strong>The war against COVID-19 pandemic is currently being fought using the COVID-19 vaccine. To break the chain of transmission of the infection and establish herd immunity, the COVID-19 vaccine is that veritable tool to be used but its uptake is hindered by the fear of its side effects. As with all medications, COVID-19 vaccine has side effects that requires discovery as the disease and its vaccine are novel.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the uptake of, the incidence, pattern of side effects to the COVID-19 vaccine amongst medical doctors at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa state, Nigeria as well as the association between COVID-19 vaccine side effects and chronic medical illnesses.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This was a descriptive cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was carried out among medical doctors at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa state, Nigeria, from 15<sup>th</sup>June to 30<sup>th</sup> July, 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain data from 102 participants recruited by consecutive sampling. Data obtained were the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the presence of co-morbidities and the presence of side effects to the COVID-19 vaccine for those vaccinated.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Out of 102 medical doctors who participated in the survey, only 30 (29.4%) had received the COVID-19 vaccine and 26 of them (86.7%) reported different forms of side effects such as pain at the injection site, fever, muscle pain and joint pain. Pain at the injection site was the commonest vaccine-associated side effect (76.7%). The first day after COVID-19 vaccination was the commonest time of onset of the reported side effects. There was no statistically significant relationship between COVID-19 vaccine side effects and presence of chronic medical conditions in the participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Uptake of COVID-19 vaccine among medical doctors was low and is worrisome. Incidence of COVID-19 vaccine side effects was high; however, the symptoms were mild to moderate. In the face of this challenging pandemic, COVID-19 vaccination still remains a safe means of ensuring protection against the disease.</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Association with Anthropometric Indices among Students of the University of Maroua (Far North Region, Cameroon) 2022-06-22T10:43:41+00:00 Françoise Raïssa Ntentie Maxwell Wandji Nguedjo Mary-Ann Angie Mbong Boris Ronald Tonou Tchuente Palouma Souavourbe Huiny Miriane Tienoue Fotso Julius Enyong Oben <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Hypertension (HTN) is one of the major public health problems in the world, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate its prevalence and its association with anthropometric indices among students of the University of Maroua.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A cross-sectional, analytical, and descriptive study was designed.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Two campuses of the University of Maroua located in the Far-North Region of Cameroon. Sampling was done between January and February 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 330 Cameroonian and Chadian students aged 17 to 35 years were recruited. Anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist, and hip circumference) and blood pressure were measured. Hypertension (HTN) was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Data were analyzed with Chi-square, Student t-test, simple linear regression, and multivariate analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of HTN was 8.2% according to WHO criteria and 21.8% according to IDF criteria. Men were more affected (10%) than women (3.4%). Students aged 26-30 years old were the most affected (27%). Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) was the most common subtype in the general population, regardless of gender and nationality. Most participants with hypertension were in the pre-HTN stage (11.5%). Overweight (OR=3.73; 95% CI: 1.39-10.00) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥0.5 (OR=3.64; 95% CI: 1.27-10.44) significantly increased the risk of developing HTN among students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>HTN is increasing among young students at the University of Maroua and is strongly associated with anthropometric indices such as BMI and WHtR. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, BMI, and WHtR will help early detection and prevention of the silent onset of HTN among these young people.</p> 2022-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determining the Knowledge Level on Safe Sex and the Attitude towards Sexual Consent among Medical Students in Malaysia: A Cross-sectional Study 2022-07-11T07:18:35+00:00 Daniel Dashanraj Thuvaraky Sureshkumar Sivanesvary Selvanathan Sih Wei Mei Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe Soe Moe Neena Chuni Mila Nu Nu Htay <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Medical students are the future health educators of the public; hence it becomes essential for us to be empowered with accurate and sufficient knowledge on safe sex and sexual consent as the sparsity of the knowledge among the population leads to detrimental implications.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study aimed to investigate knowledge regarding safe sex, factors associated with the knowledge on safe sex, as well as to identify the attitude on sexual consent among medical students.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:&nbsp; </strong>A cross-sectional analytical study</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study was conducted from April 2022 to May 2022 among undergraduate medical students (MBBS) in a private medical university in Malaysia. The respondents were recruited by purposive sampling and self-administered validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using Epi Info software (version The descriptive statistics was calculated as frequency, percentage, and mean. The Chi-square test was used in inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 140 students who agreed to participate in this study. After the data analysis, 61.7% of the students have good knowledge on safe sex, and 72.34% of the students have good attitude towards sexual consent. There were no statistically significant association between age, gender, ethnicity, semester of study, country of origin and the knowledge of safe sex, attitude towards sexual consent, and sources of information of safe sex. Furthermore, the most sourced out for safe sex related information are from schools/ universities followed by health talks/ seminars/ webinars, online sources, friends, and lastly parents and siblings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study has demonstrated societal significance between gender and age against the knowledge level on safe sex and attitude level towards sexual consent. This reinforces that sex education which includes safe sex and sexual consent should be inculcated into the general education syllabus for the betterment of the society as a whole in terms of sexual well-being.</p> 2022-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Association between Caffeinated Beverages Consumption and Sleep Quality of Undergraduate Medical Students: A Cross-sectional Study 2022-07-14T10:21:14+00:00 Ng Jia Yi Chong Zhi Ming Harshana Sivam Bryan Chong Yu Kiat Sujata Khobragade Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe Soe Moe Mila Nu Nu Htay <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Caffeine is one of the most common brain stimulants used by people nowadays to stay awake. This is especially seen in youngsters including medical students around the world.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to investigate the association between caffeine intake and sleep quality of undergraduate medical students.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; A cross-sectional analytical study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study was conducted from January to February 2022 among undergraduate medical students (MBBS) in a private medical university in Malaysia. The respondents were recruited by purposive sampling and a self-administered validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analysed using Epi Info software (version The descriptive statistics was calculated as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and range. The Chi-square test was used in inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 111 students who agreed to participate in this study. After the data analysis and processing, 89.19% of the students reported of having low caffeine intake while 10.81% having high caffeine intake. The results showed that 53.15% of the students had good sleep quality while the remaining 46.85% had poor sleep quality. There was no significant association between age, gender, ethnicity, caffeine intake, and sleep quality. However, there was a significant association between the semester that the student was currently taking and sleep quality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although there was no significant association between the caffeine intake and sleep quality, 46.85% of the respondents reported poor sleep quality. Therefore, it would be beneficial if sleep hygiene education sessions are included in university education programme.</p> 2022-07-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Medical Students' Perspective about Influencing Factors of Anxiety during Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Descriptive Study 2022-07-18T07:00:38+00:00 Shelly Salmah Itzar Chaidir Islam Nurul Magfirah Rusli Sumara Nur Irma Safitri Lidia Jamal Wali Khoirunnisa Hijriatun Nisa Ismail Masyhuri Tanri Zahra Aulia Magistriana Kasrum Sitti Rafiah <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a versatile multipurpose evaluative tool that can be used to evaluate health care professionals or soon to be in a clinical setting. Students’ performance in facing an exam consisted of their skills, knowledge, their condition, and their level of anxiety. Anxiety is defined by the American Psychological Association (APA) as an emotion marked by feelings of tension, worried thoughts, and physical changes such as increasing blood pressure, sweating, trembling, dizziness, or tachycardia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> An analytic observational study with a cross-sectional research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. This study was held from October until December 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We gained 167 samples, which is determined by the <em>Lemeshow formula</em>, from the 2nd and 3<sup>rd</sup>-year students of Hasanuddin University Faculty of Medicine used a simple random side technique and they are given APA modified questionnaire regarding anxiety and student perceptions, implementation of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) during the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There are 167 people that fulfilled the criteria from the second-and the third-year preclinical students. The importance of the OSCE exam, the majority of students answered very importantly as many as 121 people (72.46%). For the students' self-confidence/motivation statement items the majority of students answered very prepared as many as 77 people (46.11%). For the physicondition-related anxiety statement items, on the first point the disturbing thoughts during the exam the majority of students answered strongly agree as many as 70 people (41.92%). For the statement items of the exam process, in the first point, namely the concern for examiners, the majority of students answered strongly agree as many as 69 people (41.32%). We concluded that the majority of students feel that OSCE is very important, but they didn’t feel confident regarding their own performance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The student’s anxiety is correlated with their preparation and self-confidence in facing OSCE during the pandemic.</p> 2022-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Validity and Reliability of Revised Impact of Family Scale in Primary Care Giver of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Children in West Bengal, India the Hospital Context 2022-08-06T11:09:37+00:00 Nupur Saha Runalika Roy Shabnam Zahir Arnab Santra Mainak Das Siddartha Chatterjee <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the study was to check the validity and reliability of revised impact of family scale (RIOFS) in Indian setting among Bengali population in parents or primary care giver of cleft lip and cleft palate children who were hospitalised for their treatment in comprehensive cleft care centre, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted in a comprehensive cleft care centre which is located at Howrah, Kolkata. Original RIOFS (2019) questionnaire was the assessment tool in this study. The original questionnaire was sent to a bilingual teacher (English – Bengali) for translation into Bengali(Version-V1).V1 was sent to Bengali language teacher for semantic correction and idiosyncratic variants (Version -2).In collaboration with other social and psychiatric professional,V2 was compared to the final version of Bengali. The investigator one used the final scale which was filled by 32 parents/primary care giver of cleft lip and cleft palate children who were admitted to a comprehensive cleft care centre in West Bengal for their treatment. Investigator two was used the same scale in same population within 15 days of administrating the previous one. Data are tabulated and analysed and statistical method was used to calculate the content validity ratio, inter-observer reliability (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Content Validity Ratio (CVR) was ranged from 0.8 – 1 which is within the acceptable limit. The overall intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) measures 0.844 during assessment of inter – observer reliability and of Cronbach’s alpha was 0.771 which indicates that RIOFS has overall good validity and reliability measures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>RIOFS (2019) is very simple and valid scale which can be used with respect to the Bengali population as the finding support the psychometric properties of questionnaire.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinical Pharmacist's Role in Medication Error Detection and Management 2022-04-27T09:18:47+00:00 K. K. Sharma Arinjay Jain Shubham Singh Tyagi Yash Goel . Sebu Piyush Mittal <p>Medication errors (MEs) are a significant issue that can jeopardize treatment quality and patient safety while also instilling distrust in the system, organization, and experts' work. MEs are a complicated problem. They can arise at any point throughout the medication development process and are linked to a variety of healthcare professionals. Medication errors are a serious medical problem. However, the language connected with these beliefs may be puzzling even at the most basic level, and the influence on individuals and communities is sometimes understated.</p> <p>When an error is detected, patients want immediate disclosure, in-person disclosure, an apology, and a discussion of steps to prevent future problems. Learning more about drug mistakes may help health care workers give their patients with safer therapy.</p> 2022-04-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Applicability of Concept of Dinacharya (Daily Routine) to Maintain Healthy Life Styles of Patients of Madatyaya and Their Morbidities with Special Reference to Alcoholism – A Review 2022-05-03T12:02:36+00:00 M. D. P. Ishara W. M. S. S. K. Kulatunga T. D. N Karunaratne Y. S. G. Wimalasiri <p>Alcohol is a psychoactive and toxic substance which consists with dependence creating properties. Alcoholism has listed as one of the three most deadly killer diseases of the 20th century by World Health Organization. According to Ayurveda, Madatyaya is a disease which is characterized by various conditions related to excessive and improper alcohol drinking. Alcohol will affect as an inebriant and contributes to 3 million mortalities each year globally with many more morbidities. Ayurveda has mentioned about the concept of <em>Dinacharya</em> (daily routine) which denotes the whole range of activities, attitudes of every day from sunrise to sunset which leads to positive health. Thus the objectives of this study were to study on Madatyaya with special reference to Alcoholism and applicability of concept of <em>Dinacharya</em> (Daily routine) to maintain healthy life styles of patients of Madatyaya and their morbidities with special reference to Alcoholism. The literature data were gathered by Ayurvedic authentic text books, Medical books, previous published Journals and authentic web sites. According to Charaka Samhita it has mentioned about the origin of Madatyaya as Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja and Sannipataja. Considering on gathered data, it can be concluded that signs, symptoms and complications mentioned in both modern and Ayurveda systems are correlated to each and applying the concept under&nbsp;<em>Dinacharya</em> as getting up in <em>Brahmamuhurtha</em>, <em>Ushapana</em> (Intake of water in early morning), <em>Sauchakarma</em> (Voidings of excrements), <em>Dantadhavana</em> (cleaning of teeth), <em>Jivhanirlekhana</em> (cleaning of tongue), <em>Anjana</em> (application of collyrium), <em>Nasya</em> (nasal cleansing), <em>Gandusha , Kavala</em> (mouth gargles), <em>Abhyanga</em> (Massage), <em>Snana (Bath), Vyayama</em> (Exercise), <em>Udvarthana </em>(exfoliation) and <em>Ahara</em> (diet) gives positive effect on managing morbidities occurred due to Alcoholism.</p> 2022-05-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##