Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice 2021-10-22T03:24:15+00:00 Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJMPCP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of Medical Science and Clinical Practice.&nbsp;AJMPCP will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. AJMPCP&nbsp;is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Research Designs and Statistical Methods in Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal: A Review of Articles Published during 2010 to 2019 2021-10-22T03:24:15+00:00 Myo -Khin Le-Le- Win Khin-May -Oo San -Shwe Ye -Htut Aung-Myo -Min Htain -Win <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Several reviews had been reported on the design and statistics of medical journals worldwide.&nbsp; However, assessment on the quality of research articles in a peer-reviewed health research journal locally widely published in Myanmar has never been carried out.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Retrospective cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The research designs and statistical procedures used in all research articles (n=391) published in the Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal (MHSRJ) from 2010 to 2019 were studied using a standardized checklist.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the publications, commonly used study designs were descriptive (cross-sectional) studies (n=191,49%) and basic science (laboratory-based) studies (n=129, 33%). The remaining were analytical observational studies (n=49, 12%) and clinical trials (n=22, 6%). Statistical analysis was not carried out in 89 studies (22%) of the published articles as the data generated from those studies were mainly qualitative data. Parametric data analysis methods were used in 206 papers (64%). Most of the statistical methods used were basic statistics, contingency table analyses, epidemiological statistics, <em>t</em>-test, correlation and regression analysis, totaling 77% of the statistically tests.&nbsp;&nbsp; Assumption was not mentioned in 60% of papers using non-parametric analysis.&nbsp; Although, it was observed that over 92% (n=363) of the articles fully reported the sampling unit and study area/site, only a few (16%, n=57) mentioned the sample size calculation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our findings indicated that a reader with knowledge on descriptive statistics, analysis of contingency tables, epidemiological methods, <em>t </em>– tests and regression analysis will then have complete statistical access to 77% of the articles published in the MHSRJ. Deficiencies in the research design and statistical analysis need to be corrected for the improvement in the quality of articles.</p> 2021-10-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative effects of Carica Papaya, Avocado Pear and Ginger Extracts on the Histological Structure of the Pancreas of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats 2021-06-23T09:49:53+00:00 Joseph Ozegbe Ebifa H. M. D. Kemzi Elechi-Amadi H. M. D. Chiamaka Abiakam Ojoye N. Briggs <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The increasing global prevalence of diabetes mellitus requires a holistic approach for its management. This study was carried out to compare the effects of <em>Carica papaya </em>(Pawpaw) leaves, <em>Persea americana</em> (Avocado pear) and <em>Zingiber officinale</em> (Ginger) on the histological structure of the pancreas of Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Fifty (50) male wistar rats with weights ranging from 170-250g were used for this study. They were divided into five groups (I, II, III, IV, and V) of 10 rats each. Groups II, III, IV and V were given 50 mg/kg STZ freshly dissolved in 0.1M citrate buffer (P<sup>H</sup> 4.5) in a volume of 1ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally to induce diabetes mellitus while Group A served as non-diabetic controls while Group B served positive controls. Group C, D, and E were given 3g/100ml body weight of freshly prepared of aqueous extract of <em>Carica papaya</em> leaves, Avocado Pear and Ginger respectively. The treatment continued for 28 days, then rats were anesthetized, and their pancreas were extirpated and processed for light microscopic examinations. The blood glucose levels were determined, and the weights were also taken at baseline and during the treatment.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The STZ-induced rats exhibited hyperglycemia accompanied with increases in glucose and loss in body weight. Aqueous extract of <em>Carica papaya </em>leaves, Avocado Pear and Ginger were found effective in lowering serum glucose and returned the weight of treated diabetic rats to almost original values. Microscopic examination of the pancreatic sections of diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of <em>Carica papaya</em> leaves, Avocado Pear and Ginger revealed regeneration of islet of langerhans compared with the untreated diabetic group. Although the three plants have regenerative abilities on islets of Langerhans, <em>Carica papaya</em> has more regenerative potentials than the other two plants.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Results from this study showed that treatment with aqueous extracts from <em>Carica papaya</em>, Avocado Pear, and Ginger were effective in lowering hyperglycemia Spreptozotocin-induced&nbsp; diabetic Wistar rats.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong>The herbal plants used for this study should be used as candidate substances for the development of regimens for the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus.</p> 2021-06-23T09:49:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation, Molecular Identification and Plasmid Profiling of Staphylococcus Species from Nasal Carriage of University Some Students of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2021-07-21T09:47:43+00:00 U. Oparaodu N. N. Odu G. A. Uzah <p>Nasal carriage with <em>Staphylococcus</em> species is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, This study was aimed to isolation, molecularly identify, and profile the plasmid of <em>Staphylococcus</em> species from the nasal carriage of some University students of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Fifty (50) Nasal swab samples were collected from the anterior nares of some students of Rivers State University using sterile cotton swabs. The samples were examined for the presence of <em>Staphylococcus </em>species using standard bacteriological methods by streaking on mannitol salt agar and incubated for 24 hours at 37.2⁰C.&nbsp; Identification and plasmid proofing of the isolated <em>Staphylococcus</em> species were carried out using genomics studies. The results showed that 48 out of the 50 samples examined were positive <em>Staphylococcus</em> species which includes <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus gallinarum</em>,<em> Staphylococcus simulans </em>, <em>Staphylococcus sciuri, </em>and<em> Staphylococcus Camosus, </em>this indication that <em>Staphylococcus </em>species does not only colonize sick or individuals with the sign of infection but also healthy individual, The results of plasmid profiling of the five <em>Staphylococcus</em> species revealed that all the species posses plasmid which is capable to enhance their resistance to the commonly used antibiotics The presence of these <em>Staphylococcus</em> species is a serious public concern because even though only <em>S. aureus</em> is the only known human pathogen others could be opportunistic pathogens. Therefore continuous surveillance and improvement of personal hygiene standards among students is highly recommended such as hand washing with soap and warm water since <em>Staphylococcus </em>species can quickly be spread among students.</p> 2021-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Diagnostic Accuracy of Cryohaemolysis in Hereditary Spherocytosis 2021-08-13T10:31:36+00:00 Gunawardena Dammika Velu Manodarshani <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Hereditary spherocytosis (HS), a heterogenous disorder, requires a screening test with high predictive value in the absence of a family history and when diagnosis is equivocal. This study evaluates the validity and reliability of cryohaemolysis test (CHT) as a cost-effective, sensitive, and specific method in the diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>An analytical cross-sectional study was done with a sample size of 62 divided between two groups. One group had diagnosed patients and their relatives with HS and the other group had spherocytes due to other causes.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The sensitivity and specificity of the CHT were 100% and 93.5% respectively. The predictive value of a positive and negative test was 93.9% and 100% respectively. The false negative and positive percentages were zero and 6.45, respectively. The CHT is affected neither by the number of reticulocytes nor spherocytes. The percentage of cryohaemolysis varied among the affected individuals of the same family.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study showed that CHT is ideal in identifying patients and silent carriers as a quick, simple and economical method. The test is highly sensitive and specific making it the right choice for developing countries.</p> 2021-08-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Latency to Peak Electromyographic Activation in Lower Limb Movement Patterns Described by Kabat: Timing of Selected Muscles 2021-08-14T07:37:05+00:00 Marysol Valencia- Buitrago Julialba Castellanos- Ruiz Julio Ernesto Pérez- Parra <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the activation sequence of selected muscles, in supine and standing positions, by means of the latency to peak electromyographic (EMG) activation in the movement patterns of the lower extremities described by Kabat.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A comparative analytical study was conducted with an intentional sample of healthy adults between 18 and 25 years old, 20 men and 20 women with right foot dominance. Three active repetitions of the two lower limb diagonals were performed, in both supine and standing positions. The latency to peak EMG activation for eight muscles in the four movement patterns was recorded by surface electromyography. The sequence of contractions was determined by means with their 95% confidence intervals. Tests of homogeneity between positions were carried out.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In most patterns, a sequence of proximal to distal contractions was observed. Significant differences between supine and standing positions were only evident in nine of the 64 trajectories studied (p&lt;0,05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>These results partially contradict the theory of normal timing that postulates that the sequence of muscle contractions is performed from distal to proximal. Future studies should include a greater number of muscles and assess other variables such as the first contraction evidenced in the electromyographic tracing.</p> <p><strong>Impact Statement:</strong> The variability found in the sequence of maximum muscle activation during the execution of lower limbs movement patterns described by Kabat, suggests that the concept of normal timing is linked to the execution of a facilitation technique through a pattern, and not to the pattern itself. This depends on the objective of the task and the individual characteristics of the subject. The need to individualize the normal timing and adapt the timing for emphasis according to each person is evident.</p> 2021-08-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluating ill- Psychosocial Issues among HIV Discordant and Concordant Couples: A Mixed Method Cross-Sectional Comparative Study 2021-08-18T07:46:03+00:00 Chinomnso C. Nnebue Adaeze N. Anaekwe Chidebe O. Anaekwe <p><strong>Background: </strong>Successful practical intervention strategies thrive on shared responsibility and global solidarity. Understanding of psychosocial status of this high-risk group could inform measures that sustain self-care and maximize benefits from antiretroviral therapy (ART).</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine and compare the ill- psychosocial issues and challenges of HIV discordant and concordant couples in comprehensive health centers in Anambra, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A mixed method cross--sectional comparative study of 289 (148 HIV-concordant and 141 HIV-discordant) couples, selected by two- stage sampling. Quantitative data were collected by interview using semi-structured questionnaire and analysed with statistical package for social sciences version 22.0. Chi-square and Fishers exact tests were used as appropriate, to determine associations between variables and p values <u>&lt;</u> 0.05 were significant.&nbsp; Qualitative information was obtained by focus group discussions (FGDs).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Uncertainty and anxiety/ fear constitute the commonest form of ill psychological feelings in 189(65.4%) male and 102(35.3%) female respondents, with more of the males being in discordant relationships (p=0.018). Also, 138(46.0%) had discrimination from the family, more on the discordant (p=0.000). Again, more of discordant couples faced discrimination at the workplace, emotional problems related to HIV; difficulty with adherence to ART and problem with sexuality in marriage (p<u>&lt;</u>0.05) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study reveals that both sets of couples, though more on the discordant side, faced uncertainty, anxiety/fear, then stigma and discrimination from the family, workplace, etc. Improved sustained sero- status based counselling and psycho- social support is recommended.</p> 2021-08-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Valsalva Maneuver on Pain Perception among Adult Patients Undergoing Spinal Procedures 2021-09-27T11:27:09+00:00 Premalatha Paulsamy Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani Ghadah Mohammed Al-Asbi Krishnaraju Venkatesan Pranave Sethuraj Kumarappan Chidambaram <p>In a healthcare setting, procedure pain is a common source of discomfort for patients. One of the non-pharmacological approaches for reducing severe pain is the Valsalva Maneuver (VM). VM also significantly minimizes the pain produced by skin puncturing during spinal injection. This study was conducted to assess the effect of Valsalva maneuver on pain perception among adult patients undergoing spinal procedures. A quasi- experimental, with posttest only control group design was adopted for this study. Fifty adult patients who were selected using the convenient sampling technique and were taught about the VM procedure by blowing into sphygmomanometer tubing and hold the mercury line up to 30 mm Hg for a period of minimum 20 seconds. The numeric rating scale (NRS) was used immediately after the spinal puncture. The results indicates that there is statistically significant reduction in pain among patients who performed VM (p=0.001). The study concludes that the VM can be included routine protocol to reduce pain during any procedures.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Controlled Breathing Exercise on Dyspnea in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 2021-09-27T11:28:57+00:00 Premalatha Paulsamy Krishnaraju Venkatesan Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani Pranave Sethuraj Rajalakshimi Vasudevan <p>COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is one of the most frequent life-threatening disorders afflicting people all over the world. COPD patients have increased work of breath and dyspnea as a result of pathophysiological changes in the airway, tissue, and vascular supply to the lungs. These changes increase airway resistance and air trapping, and decrease lung compliance, resulting in higher work of breath and discomfort. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of controlled breathing on dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).A quasi experimental design was used with purposive sampling technique with 25 patients in each study and control group. Breathing pattern was assessed through modified Borg dyspnea scale. The obtained t value between the control and study groups was 2.64 and 2.07 respectively, which was significant at the p=0.05 level, which shows that the controlled breathing exercise was more beneficial for the study group in lowering dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The study concluded that the controlled breathing is more effective in improving the level of dyspnea among COPD patients and this can be given as a regular treatment options for them to improve their lung compliance</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psychometric Properties of Sleep Behavior Questionnaire among Bengali Population 2021-09-27T11:30:52+00:00 Poulam Guha Shreya Tripathi Biswaroop Chandra Shabnam Zahir <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>:</strong> Numerous important biological functions in the human body are regulated by adequate amount of sleep. Manifestations of poor sleep are often misconceived as behavioural issues, cognitive dysfunction or systemic health concerns, which may present differently in adults and children. Sleep Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ) is an assessment tool mostly filled by parents regarding their childs sleep behaviour and patterns. The present study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the SBQ in relation to the Bengali population.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration</strong><strong>:</strong> Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences &amp; Research, Panihati, Sodepur, Kolkata from November 2020 till December 2020.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> SBQ was the assessment tool used. The original questionnaire was sent to a bilingual teacher (English-Bengali) for translation into Bengali (version1, V1). V1 was given to a Bengali language teacher for semantic correction and idiosyncratic variants (version 2, V2). In collaboration with a researcher and other mental health care professionals, V2 was compared to the final version of Bengali. The scale was then translated into the original (English) language. The final version was used for the study and was filled up by guardians of 50 children aged between 6 to 13 years. Data were tabulated and analyzed and the statistical methods used were Cronbachs alpha and Content Validity Ratio.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> To ensure validity, Content Validity Ratio was checked and most items in the questionnaire were acceptable as per experts. To ensure reliability, Cronbachs alpha was calculated and the value was 0.778.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> The SBQ can be used with respect to the Bengali population as the findings support the psychometric properties of the questionnaire.</p> 2021-09-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Patients' Perceptions of the Role of Nurse Practitioners in the Polyclinic of Tamale Teaching Hospital in Ghana 2021-10-04T13:44:07+00:00 Kennedy Asuo-Tannor Abubakari Yussif Ruth Nimota Nukpezah <p><strong>Background:</strong> The global annual growth of the nurse practitioner (NP) workforce is estimated to be three to nine times greater than that of physicians. Also, there are inconsistencies in survey reports on patient encounters during visits to the nurse practitioner.&nbsp; To bridge this gap and improve role expectations and performance, establishing a survey report on Patients' perceptions of the role of nurse practitioners is of interest to the health workforce.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To assess patients' perceptions of the role of nurse practitioners in the Polyclinic of Tamale Teaching Hospital in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>From July to September 2021, a face-to-face survey of 228 patients who visited a nurse practitioner at the Tamale Teaching Hospital was conducted. The patient's perceptions of the role of nurse practitioners were investigated using a validated self-report questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and the STROBE checklist as a reporting standard.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the majority of respondents perceived nurse practitioners to have a role in supervising other nurses (89.9%), performing certain diagnostic tests (87.7%), developing a plan to take care of the patient and put that plan into action (93.8%). The majority of respondents 219 (96.1%) who have been cared for by nurse practitioners were satisfied with the care given by the nurse practitioner. However, (74.6%) of respondents were unsure whether it is the role of nurse practitioners in assessing all information gathered to determine the patient's health. The age of respondents and religious affiliation was significant (p = 0.000). However, the sex of respondents had no statistically significant (p = 0.127), connection with their satisfaction with care provided by a nurse practitioner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The majority of the participants seeking health care were satisfied with nurse practitioners’ services. Thus, it is advised that nurse practitioners should continue to exhibit actions that are suitable for their role to the general population. The most fundamental method is for them to demonstrate this via their behaviours and practice.</p> 2021-10-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Velvet Tamarind (Dialium guineense Wild) Fruit is Potent against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria 2021-10-07T14:14:41+00:00 Augustine I. Airaodion Simeon O. Oluba Ayodeji A. Adedeji Sunday A. Emaleku Ojo J. Osunmuyiwa Anthony U. Megwas Emmanuel B. Ayita <p><strong>Background:</strong> Velvet tamarind has become notable for its nutritional composition. Its conjointly been legendary to contain phytochemicals and pharmaceutical agents.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study was designed to examine the bactericide activity of velvet tamarind fruit.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Nutrient agar was used to prepare the medium for the growth of the bacteria. Pure cultures of <em>C. bacillus</em>, <em>Staph.</em> <em>epidermidis</em>, <em>Staph. aureus</em>, <em>Strep. viridians</em>, <em>S. typhi</em>, and <em>E. coli</em> were obtained from the Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology Department of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Serial dilution was conducted on the extracts in the order of 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.125% solutions respectively. A sterilized 9 mL paper&nbsp;discs&nbsp;soaked within the diluted extracts were placed on the plate and cultured for 24 hours in an ambient temperature. The leaves were examined for clear zones of inhibition. The presence of zones of inhibition indicated activity and was measured.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The two extracts of velvet tamarind fruit exhibited bactericide activities against <em>C. bacillus</em>, <em>S.&nbsp;epidermidis</em>, <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>S.&nbsp;viridians</em>, <em>S.&nbsp;typhi</em>, and <em>E. coli</em> and also, repressed their growth. The effect of extract from ethanol was more significant than the extract from the aqueous solution of Velvet tamarind fruit.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study showed that velvet tamarind fruit has the ability to inhibit the expansion of all the microorganisms investigated, with the&nbsp;ethanolic&nbsp;extract considered to be more effective in exerting bactericide effect than the extract from the aqueous solution.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Morinda Lucida Leaf Extract on Ibuprofen Induced Nephrotoxicity Albino Rats 2021-10-12T10:59:38+00:00 Nkiruka Millicent Amadi Peter Uwadiegwu Achukwu Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu Nonyelum V. Anoh <p><em>Morinda lucida </em>ethanol stem bark extract dilution of ((500, 1000, 1500) mg /kg) body weight were administered to B<sub>1,</sub> B<sub>2,</sub> B<sub>3</sub> groups subjected to ibuprofen induced nephrotoxicity. Histomorphological studies on target organ; kidney were harvested, weighed and processed. Ibuprofen toxic activities of the extracts treated groups (serum biochemical markers) and the relative organ index (ρ&lt;0.05) in treated groups respectively produce significant changes. Target organ extract examinations offered some protection on glomerular and tubular degenerative changes while there are deterioration changes in B groups.</p> 2021-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence and Knowledge of Tuberculosis among HIV Patients Accessing Care at Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria 2021-10-19T13:16:02+00:00 E. C. Iwuoha <p><strong>Background:</strong> TB infection is one of the leading causes of death among HIV patients because of&nbsp; the burden of TB HIV co-infection on the immunity of affected persons. Estimation of the prevalence of TB among these clients will enhance screening, early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, knowledge of TB among these clients is of relevance to their care.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The study aimed at assessing the prevalence and knowledge of tuberculosis among HIV patients accessing care at Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) Aba.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This was an institutional-based cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 315 patients who accessed HIV care at Abia State University Teaching Hospital from June to September 2019. Data was obtained from the patients using semi-structured questionnaires which were self- administered within the period of study and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22.0. Statistical significance was set at P-value of &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 315 HIV patients assessing care at ABSUTH participated in the study; 66.0% were females and 34.0% were males with 40.0% within the age of 26-35 and about 40.0% were married. All the patients had heard of tuberculosis and 43.8% knew the cause of tuberculosis while 56.8% knew how it could be contracted. Prevalence of TB in the study population was 30.8%. Patient’s educational level and awareness of risk of TB among HIV patients showed statistically significant relationship with previous treatment for TB (<em>p</em>=0.03 and 0.04 respectively).</p> 2021-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##