Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJMPCP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of Medical Science and Clinical Practice.&nbsp;AJMPCP will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. AJMPCP&nbsp;is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journalajmpcp.com (Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice) contact@journalajmpcp.com (Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice) Tue, 02 Jan 2024 12:39:52 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Phenibut with Their Potential Dependence on Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide: A Literature Review https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/229 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of the study was to analyze the current literature data on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phenibut, as well as to evaluate their potential dependence on endogenous hydrogen sulfide.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Retrospective analysis of literature data was carried out on the basis of data from Scopus, Web of science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, UpToDate databases, as well as using the Google search service. When searching for information on the investigated problem, various combinations of keywords in Ukrainian and English were used: “phenibut”, “pharmacokinetics”, “pharmacodynamics”, “pharmacology”, “hydrogen sulfide”, “H2S”, “mechanism of action”, “physiology”, “pathophysiology”. During the processing the search results, either the most recent publications (for the last 10 years) or the latest publications on this issue (regardless of the age) were selected. After studying the data of the search results, 38 scientific sources were selected that met the terms of the request.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Despite its promising profile, phenibut is not without certain limitations and problems. Its effectiveness in the treatment of anxiety disorders is considered moderate compared to traditional anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines. In addition, due to the limited number of studies, its safety and potential side effects with long-term use require further study. Overall, phenibut is an interesting and promising drug that deserves further investigation, but limitations of its use may be related to individual characteristics of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In our opinion, the cause of such individual characteristics may be certain endogenous factors that vary among different people. One of these endogenous modulators includes hydrogen sulfide, which regulates a wide range of biochemical and physiological processes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The broad and diverse influence of endogenous hydrogen sulfide on the course of biochemical and physiological processes in the body prompts the study of its potential modulating influence on the pharmacological properties of drugs. A preclinical study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs (in particular, phenibut) taking into account the level of hydrogen sulfide in the body will allow further optimization of therapeutic schemes by adjusting the background level of this transmitter.</p> Olha Kyrychenko, Dmytro Grebeniuk, Oleh Ksenchyn Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/229 Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Growing Trend of Psychiatric Emergencies in the Modern World: A Literature Review https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/202 <p>Psychiatric emergencies represent critical situations wherein individuals face acute mental health crises that necessitate immediate intervention to ensure their safety and well-being. These emergencies can occur and develop in various forms, and the most popular variants include suicidal ideation, severe psychotic episodes, overwhelming anxiety, or acute intoxication. The growing prevalence of psychiatric emergencies in the modern world raises concerns about the complex interplay of societal, environmental, and individual factors contributing to mental health crises. One important aspect of psychiatric emergencies is the heightened vulnerability of individuals in the face of contemporary stressors. Economic uncertainties, political instability, and rapid societal changes can exacerbate pre-existing mental health conditions or trigger acute episodes. Similarly, the influence of technology and social media introduces novel challenges, affecting interpersonal relationships, self-perception, and the amplification of mental health stressors. Environmental factors, including climate change and urbanization, add another layer of complexity to the landscape of psychiatric emergencies. Disruptions in the environment can influence mental health, and the consequences may be more pronounced in vulnerable populations. Moreover, access to mental health resources remains uneven, contributing to disparities in the prevalence of emergencies among different demographic groups. This study aims to elucidate the multifaceted factors influencing this growing trend, exploring the implications for individuals, communities, and healthcare systems. In addressing the implications of this trend, this review aims to inform strategies for early intervention, prevention, and the improvement of mental health services. It emphasizes the importance of community-based initiatives, destigmatization efforts, and the integration of mental health awareness into public health campaigns.</p> Fouad Mahmoud Alrahal Copyright (c) 2024 Alrahal; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/202 Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Radiology Techniques: A Review of Their Role in Elderly Females with Breast Cancer https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/216 <p>Breast cancer is considered one of the leading causes of women’s mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite several treatment and therapeutic procedures available, this sector still needs to be improved. The reason for this mainly lies in the fact that women mainly get diagnosed very late in the disease process and when this happens, usually not much could be done to save their lives. However, thanks to the advancements taking place in the field of medical science, there is strong hope that people will see better days in the future. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has emerged as a promising tool in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, offering enhanced imaging capabilities over traditional mammography. The aging population presents unique challenges in breast cancer detection and management, necessitating tailored approaches to imaging. This review shall focus on the recent research findings, technological advancements, and clinical outcomes related to DBT in elderly females with breast cancer. This review provides an update on the utilization of advanced radiology techniques in DBT specifically tailored for elderly females with breast cancer. Additionally, the article discusses the role of DBT in guiding treatment decisions and assessing treatment responses in elderly breast cancer patients. Insights into the benefits, limitations, and future directions of DBT in this demographic are provided, with implications for clinical practice and research highlighted. Overall, this review highlights the evolving landscape of DBT in addressing the unique needs of elderly females with breast cancer and sets the stage for further advancements in this critical area of breast imaging.</p> Gilan Abdel Aziz Ahmed Abdel Aziz Ramadan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/216 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Reflection on the Incidence and Frequency of Different Injury Patterns of Some of the Most Prevalent Orthopedic Sports Injuries in Players https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/203 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Orthopedic injuries in sports encompass a diverse array of patterns and incidences across various athletic disciplines.</p> <p><strong>Main Review:</strong> Professional football reveals fluctuating injury rates during competition and training, with thigh-related strains and hamstrings emerging as common occurrences. Equestrian sports notably feature fractures as a significant majority among reported cases, emphasizing their inherent risk. Ice hockey players commonly face shoulder injuries, exhibiting distinct lesion patterns that impact return-to-play durations. Rugby injuries predominantly affect lower limbs, often leading to player removal from the game. In contrast, basketball players grapple with ACL and meniscal injuries alongside heightened ankle sprains and bone stress incidents that hamper performance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This comprehensive review underscores the complexity of orthopedic injuries prevalent in diverse sports. It emphasizes the variability in injury rates, distinctive injury patterns, and their differential impacts on various body regions. Understanding these nuances becomes imperative in formulating targeted preventive measures and rehabilitation strategies tailored to each sport.</p> Yasar Fayaz Copyright (c) 2024 Fayaz; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/203 Thu, 04 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Prevalence of Opioid Overdose in Young VS. Old Patients: A Literature Review https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/205 <p>Opioids are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers like oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine, as well as illicit drugs such as heroin. Opioids act on the central nervous system, particularly the respiratory centers in the brain. An overdose can cause slow and shallow breathing, which can lead to a lack of oxygen in the body. Common signs of opioid overdose include pinpoint pupils, confusion, unconsciousness, and difficulty breathing. The skin may become pale or clammy, and the person's lips or fingertips may turn blue or gray. Individuals with a history of opioid use disorder, those taking high doses of prescription opioids, or those using opioids in combination with other substances are at an increased risk of overdose. Opioid overdose is a serious and potentially life-threatening medical emergency that occurs when an individual consumes a toxic amount of opioids, leading to respiratory depression, unconsciousness, and if left untreated, death. Opioid overdose is a significant public health concern, and efforts are ongoing to address both the immediate crisis of overdose and the broader issues of opioid misuse and addiction. Public awareness, education, and access to life-saving interventions like naloxone play critical roles in reducing the impact of opioid overdose on individuals and communities. This study highlights the importance of public health initiatives aimed at mitigating the impact of opioid overdose. Increased awareness, access to naloxone, and comprehensive treatment options for opioid use disorder are fundamental components of a holistic response to this pressing public health crisis. By developing a deeper understanding of opioid overdose and its implications, stakeholders can work collaboratively to implement effective strategies that save lives and address the root causes of opioid-related harm. It also lays a firm background on the misuse of opioids that leads to such problems in the future, thereby warning the physicians and medical personnel regarding an up-and-coming problem that would change the world, but mostly for the worse.</p> Fouad Mahmoud Alrahal Copyright (c) 2024 Alrahal; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/205 Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Therapeutic Approach of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter Inhibitors to Reduce Mortality and Morbidity in Type 2 DM Patients with Cardio Vascular Disorders https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/210 <p>Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome, characterized by inadequate control of blood glucose levels and it is classified into Type 1, Type 2, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), gestational diabetes, neonatal diabetes, and steroid-induced diabetes. As per the epidemiological data, 537 million adults of the age between 20-79 years age-old are suffering from diabetes. Diabetic mellitus is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. T2DM leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, with diabetes-induced micro and macrovascular complications is that major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with T2DM. whose of 102 studies found that T2DM was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke, independent of other risk factors including age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and systolic BP. The kidney’s role in the reabsorption of glucose from the glucose filtrate has led to an investigation of SGLT2 as a potential therapeutic target for T2DM. SGLT2 inhibitors decrease the capacity of the proximal tubule to reabsorb glucose from the glomerular filtrate. Clinical studies have shown that SGLT2 inhibitors improve glycemic control when employed in patients with both early and late stages of T2DM.SGLT2 inhibitors have the potential to reduce CV risk in patients with T2DM not only through beneficial effects on glycemic control, but also via beneficial effects on body weight, bp, lipids, and serum uric acid.</p> Samreddy Bhavani , Basani Pavithra , Durishetty Soujanya , Gannoji Sainath Chary , Rasuri Charishma , Asra Tabassum , M Kiranmai Copyright (c) 2024 Bhavani et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/210 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Overview of the Advanced MRI Techniques Used for the Early Detection of Stroke and other Cerebrovascular Diseases https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/218 <p>Stroke or cerebrovascular accidents pose a great threat to the health and mortality of individuals. Although strokes are now seen to be reversible, if they are not caught and intervened with, then they could lead to deadly consequences in the long term. In the modern world today, there are several interventions, therapeutic measures, and diagnostic facilities that help detect early changes within the brain in no time. Similarly, several advanced MRI techniques play a great role in the early detection of stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases in emergencies. These techniques include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which allows for the visualization of acute ischemic lesions within minutes of symptom onset, aiding in rapid diagnosis. Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) provides valuable insights into tissue perfusion and viability, helping to identify areas of ischemia and guide treatment decisions. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) enhances the detection of hemorrhagic strokes and microvascular abnormalities, which is highly important for prompt intervention. Additionally, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) offers detailed visualization of the cerebrovascular anatomy, aiding in identifying occlusions or stenosis contributing to cerebrovascular diseases. By integrating these advanced MRI techniques into emergency protocols, clinicians can swiftly and accurately diagnose cerebrovascular emergencies, enabling timely interventions and improving patient outcomes. This article will discuss advanced MRI techniques utilized in emergency scenarios for early detection of stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial for timely intervention and improved patient outcomes in such critical scenarios. Conventional MRI protocols often face limitations in providing timely information due to lengthy acquisition times and limited sensitivity to acute pathologies. Furthermore, ongoing advancements in MRI technology, including ultrafast sequences and artificial intelligence-based image analysis, hold promise for further improving the efficiency and accuracy of emergency cerebrovascular imaging.</p> Gilan Abdel Aziz Ahmed Abdel Aziz Ramadan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/218 Wed, 13 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Pediatric Patients https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/223 <p>Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients worldwide. Epidemiological studies reveal variations in the incidence and prevalence of CAP among different age groups, geographic locations, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and atypical organisms, contribute to the development of CAP in children, with Streptococcus pneumoniae being the most common bacterial cause. Clinical presentation can range from mild respiratory symptoms to severe respiratory distress, necessitating hospitalization and intensive care. Diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical assessment, radiological findings, and microbiological tests, although challenges persist in distinguishing viral from bacterial etiologies. Management involves appropriate antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and consideration of vaccination status. However, rising antimicrobial resistance poses challenges in treatment selection, emphasizing the importance of reasonable antibiotic use. Prevention strategies, including vaccination against common pathogens and promotion of hygiene measures, play a crucial role in reducing the burden of CAP in pediatric populations. Overall, a multidisciplinary approach involving pediatricians, infectious disease specialists, radiologists, and public health officials is essential for effectively managing and preventing CAP in children. Further research is needed to address emerging pathogens, optimize diagnostic strategies, and refine treatment guidelines to improve outcomes in pediatric patients with CAP. This abstract provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and prevention strategies related to CAP in children. It will help understand the ever-changing trends in the field of child-care that come with the prevalence of pneumonia in pediatric patients.</p> Maha Saied Ahmed Eldohemy Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/223 Wed, 03 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness and Safety of Epidural Analgesia, Nitrous Oxide, or Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) for Pain Management during Labor and Delivery: A Literature Review https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/226 <p>Pain management during labor is an important aspect of obstetric care. Its purpose is to reduce maternal discomfort while ensuring the safety of the mother and newborn. Various pharmacological methods are used to treat labor pain, including epidural analgesia, nitrous oxide inhalation, and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Epidural analgesia involves administering local anesthetics and opioids into the epidural space, which effectively relieves pain by blocking nerve conduction. Numerous studies have demonstrated superior pain relief compared to other methods, resulting in high patient satisfaction. However, there are concerns about potential side effects such as hypotension, motor block, and prolonged labor. Additionally, the impact of epidural analgesia on the labor process and delivery method remains controversial. Similarly, nitrous oxide, also known as “nitrous oxide,” is an inhaled analgesic that is gaining popularity because of its rapid onset of action and short duration of action. It provides a non-invasive option to reduce pain during labor, allowing women to maintain mobility and control their breathing patterns. Although nitrous oxide is generally considered safe, its effectiveness varies from person to person, and some women report insufficient pain relief. In contrast, PCA allows patients to self-administer a predetermined dose of analgesic medication, that is usually an opioid, via an infusion pump or handheld device. This approach gives women a sense of autonomy and immediate pain relief without the need for repeated injections. Studies have shown that PCA can effectively relieve labor pain while minimizing opioid-related side effects such as respiratory depression and sedation. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for overdose and inadequate pain management if used inappropriately. The choice of pain management method during labor should be individualized based on the woman’s preferences, medical history, and obstetric circumstances. Although epidurals remain the gold standard for effective and lasting pain relief, they do have potential drawbacks. Nitrous oxide and her PCA offer a suitable alternative option for women seeking non-invasive or spontaneous pain relief strategies. This literature review evaluates the effectiveness and safety of these treatments in achieving optimal pain relief and maternal satisfaction while minimizing adverse outcomes.</p> Mona Abdelrahman Mohammed Mohammed, Eman Mohamed Ali Elshorbagy , Kholoud Ibrahim Ali Saleh El Shehawy Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/226 Mon, 29 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Anesthesia Protocol for Patients Undergoing Fertility Preservation before Cancer Treatment https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/227 <p>The preservation of fertility is a highly important consideration for patients undergoing cancer treatment, especially those requiring procedures such as egg retrieval or ovarian transplantation. These procedures pose unique challenges because they require anesthesia protocols that ensure patient safety while preserving fertility. Recent advances in anesthesia techniques offer promising opportunities to optimize the outcomes of fertility-sparing procedures. In recent years, there has been a shift toward alternative anesthesia methods, such as opting for regional anesthesia techniques such as spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia, and monitored anesthesia (MAC). These approaches have benefits such as reduced systemic impact, reduced recovery time, and improved postoperative pain management. Egg retrieval is an important step in preserving fertility for female cancer patients. Modern anesthesia protocols, particularly the use of regional techniques such as transvaginal ultrasound-guided paracervical blocks and spinal anesthesia, have been shown to improve patient comfort and safety during the procedure. This literature review aims to assess the effectiveness of modern anesthesia protocols in promoting successful fertility preservation in patients undergoing oocyte retrieval and ovarian transposition before cancer treatment. It will help reflect on the pros and cons that make these updated techniques an excellent choice to be utilized in such challenging situations.</p> Kholoud Ibrahim Ali Saleh El Shehawy , Eman Mohamed Ali Elshorbagy , Mona Abdelrahman Mohammed Mohammed Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/227 Mon, 29 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Evaluation of The Pathophysiology, Prevention, and Rehabilitation Strategies for ICU-Acquired Weakness in Critically Ill Patients https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/230 <p>Critically ill patients are often exposed to Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness (ICUAW). The pathophysiology of this condition, the preventative measures, as well as the effective rehabilitation approaches are the core for improving patient functional status and the decrease of the healthcare system burden. ICUAW is a general term that is used to include a range of neuropathies of critical importance such as preparing polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM), most of which can coexist during the same patient. ICUAW mechanisms can be quite subtle and complex. Several mechanisms include factors like oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. The suggested mechanisms involved are microvascular dysfunction, inflammatory responses, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neural excitation-contraction coupling failure. Nonetheless, it is fairly evident from the current data that there may be a multifactorial interplay at the basis of this illness, but the full picture continues to be obscure. The preventive strategies are targeted mostly at reducing the risk factors involved in the development of ICUAW. Strategies like early mobilization, paying due attention to the sedation strategies, and using third-generation short-acting neuromuscular blockers that can be reversed. Furthermore, technology based on electrical muscle stimulation is one of the tools being used for secondary prevention. Rehabilitation has a vital role in recovering patients from the ICUAW. The multidisciplinary approach is centered on rehabilitation development with physical therapy, occupational therapy, and respiratory therapy involvement as key elements of the overall care. Sustained exercise programs, respiratory therapy, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation are effective rehabilitation approaches in the treatment of these patients to restore muscle strength, function, and physical ability after their ICUAW. This review aims to reflect on the commonly encountered weakness in ICU patients to guide the relevant phyisicans on how to deal with them to improve the patient’s condition, even if by a small fraction.</p> Mostafa Ahmed Mohamed Tirelbar, Haithm Mohamed Abdelghafar Shalaby Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/230 Wed, 15 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Benefits and Risks of PPI Use in H. Pylori Associated Peptic Ulcer Disease https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/231 <p>Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common causative factors of peptic ulcers, which may affect the stomach and the duodenum. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have become a key ingredient of H. pylori-associated ulcers due to their highly acid-suppressive properties. Numerous clinical trials have proved that PPIs have a beneficial effect on the ulcer healing process in those with H. pylori infection. PPIs are acid pump inhibitors that irreversibly inhibit the H+/K+ ATPase proton pump in gastric parietal cells. Through this mechanism, PPIs reduce the secretion of gastric acid, allowing for a conducive environment that is favorable for ulcer healing. Meta-analyses have repeatedly shown that triple therapy with PPI (proton pump inhibitor) achieves higher ulcer healing rates compared to antibiotics therapy alone, which again stresses the synergistic effect of acid suppression and H. pylori eradication. PPI, in ulcer healing, remains indispensable, however, their effects on the regimen for eradication of H. pylori needs to be considered. PPIs are commonly used as one of the three main components of the standard triple therapy regimen in addition to antibiotics. Nevertheless, the risk of affecting the efficiency of H. pylori eradication using PPIs has been raised. Research may suggest that PPI use can decrease pH in the stomach, thereby compromising the action of antibiotics against H. pylori. Despite their efficacy, PPIs are associated with various risks and adverse effects. Long-term PPI use has been linked to an increased risk of enteric infections, including Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea, potentially attributable to altered gut microbiota and reduced gastric acidity. This literature review will examine PPI in the context of H. pylori infection, its efficacy in the treatment of ulcers, and related risks.</p> Hossamaldin Fawzy Ramadan Alshorfa Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/231 Wed, 15 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Addressing Communication Strategies, Decision-making Frameworks and Palliative Care Interventions for Patients and Families Facing End-of-life Decisions in the ICU https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/232 <p>End-of-life care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) presents significant challenges due to the complexity of medical conditions, the intensity of treatments, and the profound emotional and ethical decisions required by patients, families, and healthcare providers. Effective communication strategies, robust decision-making frameworks, and targeted palliative care interventions are critical in managing these challenges. Effective communication is integral in end-of-life care settings, particularly in the ICU. There is always a need to emphasize on clear, compassionate, and timely communication between healthcare providers and family members. Decision-making in the ICU involves ethically complex and emotionally charged deliberations, often under conditions of uncertainty and time pressure. Palliative care, focused on providing relief from symptoms, pain, and stress, is crucial in the context of end-of-life care in the ICU. Studies have shown that early integration of palliative care teams in the ICU settings leads to better symptom management, higher quality of life, and more appropriate end-of-life care decisions. These teams work in conjunction with ICU staff to address not only physical symptoms but also the emotional, social, and spiritual needs of patients and their families. This literature review deals with the discussions that are carried out between the family members and the doctors to help the patients transition smoothly toward end-of-life care. A lot of psychological and emotional help is needed to succeed in this, and this review will prove to be a guide that helps physicians and ICU doctors understand how things are done differently. This review will reflect on the current and updated protocols that are followed keeping in mind the end-of-life decisions of people admitted to the ICU.</p> Haithm Mohamed Abdelghafar Shalaby, Mostafa Ahmed Mohamed Tirelbar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/232 Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Causes of Sudden Dimness of Vision: A Retrospective Study at the University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Nigeria https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/204 <p><strong>Aim:&nbsp;</strong>To determine the causes of sudden dimness of vision at the Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital. Awka, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>This is a retrospective hospital-based survey carried out at the Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Nigeria. The case notes of new patients seen at the Eye Unit of the hospital from January 2017 to December 2021 were examined. Those with a history of sudden dimness of vision were identified and relevant data were extracted and analyzed&nbsp;using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>A total of 3755 new patients were seen during the study period, of which 191 (5.1%) presented with sudden dimness of vision. Three people had bilateral lesions making a total of 194 involved eyes. Of the 191 patients, 101(52.9%) were male while 90 (47.1%) were female (M: F ratio 1.1:1). The age range was 1 year to 84years, and the mean and median age&nbsp;were 40.2years and 34years respectively while the bimodal age distributions of 30years and 60years (7patients each) was noted. The age range of 21-30years presented more cases of sudden vision loss at 37 (19.4%).</p> <p>Generally, ocular injuries were responsible for more sudden dimness of vision 102 (53.4%), with contusion being the highest 31 (16.2%) of the traumatic diagnosis. Non-traumatic causes were responsible for 89 (46.6%) sudden dimness of vision. Forty-one eyes (21.1%) had visual acuity of 6/9 – 6/18, 85 (44%) had visual acuity of 6/18-3/60, while 68 (35.8%) presented with visual acuity of &lt;3/60.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>Sudden dimness of vision is a serious concern to the affected and relations. The causes are divers and may be traumatic or non-traumatic, with the traumatic type in the majority. Traumatic types of sudden dimness of vision are more common in younger age groups than older adults, and males sustain more traumatic sudden dimness of vision than in female folks. Avoiding trauma-risky tasks, applying safety measures, and adequately managing existing systemic morbidity may mitigate the trend.</p> Bernard Chukwunonyerem Ochiogu , Akunne Ijeoma Apakama , Anthonia Chinyelu Udeaja , Oluwafumi Adebimpe Ijeoma Otuka , Arinze Anthony Onwuegbuna Copyright (c) 2024 Ochiogu et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/204 Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Neuroprotective Effects of Atorvastatin and Ethanolic Fruit Extract of Fragaria ananassa on the Cerebellum of Methamphetamine- Intoxicated Adult Male Wistar Rats https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/206 <p>Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful, highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system. It takes the form of a white, odourless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. Oxidative stress and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the main cause of cellular damage as a result of METH exposure. Numerous plants are known to be rich in potent phytochemicals which have been used in folkloric and orthodox medicine in the prevention and treatment of different ailments. Strawberry (<em>Fragaria ananassa</em>) as a plant contains several polyphenols with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as flavonoids, anthocyanins, and ellagic acid with strong neuroprotective efficacy. This research was designed to compare the neuroprotective effects of atorvastatin and ethanolic extract of Fragaria ananassa on the cerebellum of methamphetamine-intoxicated Wistar rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 5 rats each. Group A was the negative control and had food and water only. Group B was the positive control and was exposed to 10mg/kg/body weight of METH without treatment.&nbsp; Groups C and D were administered 200mg/kg/body weight of extract and 10 mg/kg/bw of atorvastatin (ATVS) (a standard drug) without exposure to METH respectively. Groups E was exposed to 10mg/kg of METH and treated with 10mg/kg/bw of ATVS while F and G were exposed to 10mg/kg of METH and were treated 50mg/kg/bw and 100mg/kg/bw of the ethanolic extracts respectively. Group H was exposed to 10mg/kg of METH and treated with 200mg/kg/bw of the extract plus 10mg/kg/bw of ATVS. The results of antioxidant studies show that the atorvastatin conferred more protection against oxidative stress than the ethanolic extract of strawberry. However, its histological results show that both have equal neuroprotective effects as depicted with normal cerebellar architecture whereas its combined treatment conferred more neuroprotection on the cerebellum of Wistar rats.</p> Nwankwo M. O., Ezejindu D. N. Copyright (c) 2024 Nwankwo and Ezejindu.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/206 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ultrasonographic Findings in Pre-operative Cataract Patients in A Private Eye Clinic in South East, Nigeria https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/207 <p>This research investigated the pre-operative ultrasonographic findings in cataract patients from a private eye clinic in South East Nigeria. The study comprised a total of 117 patients with an average age of 65±11.9, 56.4% of whom were male. Most patients (88%) had poor pre-operative visual acuity, with a substantial proportion (86.3%) exhibiting afferent pupillary defect in the eye slated for operation. The study highlighted that a notable 59.8% of the patients underwent biometry. Notably, in addition to thickening and increase echogenicity of the lenses in the study population; the ocular ultrasound identified abnormalities in 43.6% of the eyes. Specifically, the occurrence of vitreous degeneration was the most common finding (39.3%), while vitreous hemorrhage was less common (0.9%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of posterior synaechie and the ultrasound findings. In addition to ocular lesions, 33.3% of patients had systemic diseases, with hypertension being the most prevalent (25.6%). The ocular co-morbidity rate was 43.9%, primarily characterized by glaucoma (26.4%) and age-related macular degeneration (12.0%). These results underline the importance of pre-operative ocular ultrasound in detecting ocular abnormalities among cataract patients, and its critical role in planning for surgical intervention. These findings also emphasize the need to manage co-existing ocular and systemic diseases among cataract patients to optimize surgical outcomes.</p> L. I. Eweputanna, O. A. I. Otuka, A. Kalu , N. C. Ekeleme , E. C. Iwuoha, J. N. Ubah, B. C. Ochiogu , A. C. Udeaja Copyright (c) 2024 Eweputanna et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/207 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phenotypic Characterization and in vitro Susceptibility Testing of Fungi Isolated from Madiga Bread (Local Staple Food) in Yenagoa Metropolis, Nigeria https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/208 <p>Local bread known as "madiga" is typically enjoyed by residents of Nigeria's Niger Delta region. The aim of this study is to assess madiga bread for inbuilt pathogenic fungi in evaluating its level of edibility in Yenagoa Metropolis. A total of 42 samples was obtained and analyzed include; Hand swabs from factory workers (8/19%), hand swab of madiga vendors (6/14%), madiga bread gotten from market (12/29%), and madiga bread from factories (16/39%). The samples were processed using the following methods: culturing on Saboraud Dextrose Agar, identifying fungal isolates microscopic with Lacto-Phenol Cotton blue, staining the samples with Grama stain, germ tube test, cultivating yeast isolates on CHROMagar Candida (CAC), and standardizing the pure isolates using the 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard. From the samples, 206 fungi in total were isolated. Madiga breads obtained from factories 80 (39%) have the highest isolation rate. <em>Aspergillus niger</em> 120(58%), <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> 23(11%), <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em> 5(3%), <em>Candida tropicalis</em> 21(10%), <em>Candida parapilosis</em> 21(10%), <em>Microsporum auidouini </em>14(7%), and <em>Penicillin spp </em>2(1%), are the seven distinct fungal species that was been isolated. The pure fungal isolates were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing using the following methods: Agar diffusion and Kirby Buer techniques with Clotrimazole (50ug), Econazole (20ug), Caspofungin (5ug), Ketoconazole (15ug), Nystatin (100lu), and Fluconazole (25ug) on Saboraud Dextrose Agar. Clotrimazole was the most effective antifungal agent against all of the fungal isolates, exhibiting a 100% susceptibility rate and 8.3% resistance to fluconazole. Because of the high rate of fungal isolation from the samples that were analyzed, which is a result of the inadequate hygiene practices used in the Madiga bread's manufacturing and distribution. It is suggested that the government implement regulations to ensure appropriate monitoring of Madiga bread production and provide workers at the factory with training on essential hygiene protocols.</p> Oluwayemisi Agnes Olorode , Ebipadei Zigabel Bowei-Ofongo Copyright (c) 2024 Olorode and Bowei-Ofongo; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/208 Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Associations of Chronic Kidney Disease in a Cohort of Stable First-degree Relatives of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients at a Tertiary Health Facility in South Eastern Nigeria https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/209 <p><strong>Background: </strong>First degree relatives (FDRs) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a greater prevalence of the risk factors for CKD than the general population and should be screened for kidney disease. There is paucity of data on the occurrence of CKD and its risk factors in the stable FDRs of CKD patients. This study was aimed at determining the associations between the various risk factors for CKD and hitherto undiagnosed CKD among the FDRs of the CKD patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This was an observational prospective study involving 150 FDRs of CKD patients carried out in Nnewi, South-eastern Nigeria. Simple sampling technique was used to select the CKD probands while a stratified sampling technique was used to enroll the FDRs of the CKD subjects.</p> <p>The subjects were screened for CKD using urine albumin creatinine ratio (uACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). These were repeated after three months for the FDRs with initial abnormal results (uACR ≥ 30mg/g and/or eGFR &lt; 60ml/min/1.73m2) based on the definition of CKD. Also, the risk factors for CKD that included hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, age, gender, cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hyperuricaemia, herbal medication use and dyslipidaemia were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Age, gender, hypertension, cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia, hypercholestrolaemia and hyperuricaemia were found to have significant association with the occurrence of CKD in the FDRs of CKD patients (P ˂ 0.001; P &lt; 0.038; P ˂ 0.001; P = 0.008; P ˂ 0.001; P ˂ 0.01 &amp; P ˂ 0.001 respectively).</p> <p>There was no significant association between CKD and DM and herbal medication use (P = 0.782 &amp; P = 0.081 respectively).</p> <p>Logistic regression analysis showed that age (P = 0.009, OR 1.079, 95% C.I = 1.019 – 1.141), hypertension (P = 0.004, OR 10.602, 95% C.I = 2.085 – 53.920), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.003, OR 12.657, 95% C.I = 2.316 – 69.159) were independent predictors for CKD among the FDRs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Age, gender, hypertension, significant cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia, hypercholaestrolaemia and hyperuricaemia were significantly associated with the prevalence of CKD in FDRs of CKD patients while age, hypertension and heavy alcohol consumption were independent predictors of CKD in this group of subjects.</p> Bartholomew C. Ozuemba, Chidiebele M. Ezeude Copyright (c) 2024 Ozuemba and Ezeude; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/209 Fri, 09 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Intravenous Iron Therapy in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia Presented to Emergency Department; Retrospective Study https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/211 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) frequently with moderate to severe iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Our goal was to investigate the safety, side effects, and results of parenteral iron treatment for IDA patients presented to HMG ALRYAN hospital in Riyadh's emergency room.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective study, conducted in emergency department of HMG ALRYAN hospital Riyadh, among adult IDA patients presented to emergency department for IV iron therapy. The data was collected by authors from hospital electronic database, then entered and analysed using SPSS v 24.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 296 iron deficiency patients were included, their mean age was 35.3 ± 11.2. Females constitute 94.6% of study sample. Mean of baseline hemoglobin concentration was 10.6 ± 1.9. 1/12 later hemoglobin concentration mean was 12.2 ± 1.6. The baseline serum iron concentration ranged from 1 - 155.1 mcg/dL, with mean ± SD of 9.5 ± 16.1. The results showed a significant association between age regarding baseline serum iron concentration, and 1/12 later serum iron concentration, where the younger age ones had higher response to iron. The statistical analysis showed a significant association between adverse effect, and admission to hospital for adverse effect (P=0.003), where most of those who hadn’t adverse effects were D/C.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Among included patients 5.4% had adverse effects to IV iron to treat IDA. The younger age patients had a significantly higher response to IV iron therapy.</p> Muqbil Sayer Alshammari, Ahmed Almutairi , Faridah Khalaf Awadh Alharbi Copyright (c) 2024 Alshammari et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/211 Mon, 19 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Barriers and Strategies of Reporting Medical Errors at Benghazi Medical Center: A Cross-sectional Study in Benghazi City, Libya https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/212 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Reporting medical errors (MEs) prevents potential harm to the patient.&nbsp; This is while patient safety is a major priority in the health system and focuses on the goal of preventing medical errors before these errors cause death, injury, or harm to the patient so medical errors are one of the major factors affecting the quality of hospital services and reducing patient safety in health care systems.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To study the Barriers and Strategies of Reporting Medical Errors (MEs) at Benghazi Medical Center (BMC).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2021 at Benghazi Medical Center (BMC). The data was collected using a validated questionnaire where random sampling was used to represent the BMC, a represented sample of 500 clinical staff (280 physicians, 220 nurses)</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>219 nurses and 281 physicians from the sample stated that reporting medical errors was inadequate. The highest mean for measuring the barriers that prevent the reporting of medical errors was 3.4749 for nurses, and 3.6263 for physicians, which represents medical error reporting is inadequate. While measuring Strategies for Improving the Reporting of medical errors was 4.5662 for nurses, and 4.7794 for Physicians, which represents There should be clear guidelines and procedures for reporting errors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The highest measuring the barriers that prevent the reporting of medical errors was the complexity of the work, while the highest measure in the strategy to improve the reporting system was the necessity of having clear controls and procedures for reporting medical errors.</p> Randa Gadalla, Amal Mukhtad , Hanady Alshtshat , Hajer Elkwafy , Marwa Elfetory , Noor Elfrjany Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/212 Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination Awareness and Coverage among Adults Attending Ophthalmology Clinic in Southeast, Nigeria https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/213 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a public health problem affecting millions of people globally and&nbsp;causing severe morbidity and mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa is an endemic region for HBV. But this infection is preventable.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine hepatitis B virus vaccination awareness and coverage among adults attending&nbsp;ophthalmology clinic in Anambra State, Nigeria.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional survey to determine hepatitis B&nbsp;vaccination awareness and coverage among adults attending ophthalmology clinic in Anambra&nbsp;State, Nigeria using a pretested, self-administered and interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Information such as sociodemographics, awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B&nbsp;infection and hepatitis B vaccination were collected and analyzed using descriptive variables and&nbsp;tests of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 264 participants were enrolled having met the inclusion criteria. There were&nbsp;110(41.7%) males and 154(58,3%) females with a ratio of 1:1.4, and the age range of 20-87 years.&nbsp; The mean age was 60.6 years ± 14.8 years. Majority of the participants 96.6 % (n=255) were&nbsp;aware of HBV infection. However, 245(89.4%) do not know how HBV is transmitted. Also,&nbsp;184(69.7%) do not know about HBV vaccination while 61(23.1%) subjects had received HBV&nbsp;vaccination at least once. Lack of awareness of vaccine is the main reason for not being vaccinated&nbsp;against HBV.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adult patients attending ophthalmology clinic&nbsp;in Nigeria is poor. This is mostly due to lack of awareness of HBV vaccination.</p> Arinze Anthony Onwuegbuna , Akunne Ijeoma Apakama , Ugochukwu Anthony Eze , Chidiebele Malachy Ezeude, Bernard Chukwunonyerem Ochiogu, Anthonia Chinyelu Udeaja , Emeka Akujuobi Chianakwalam, Charles Chukwudi Uzozie , Christiana Onyinye Ubaka , Chisom God’swill Chigbo, George Uchenna Eleje Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/213 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Equipment Programming Efficiency for Blood Component Preparation to Enhance Accuracy in Service Settings and Quot https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/215 <p><strong>Background and Objective: </strong>Component preparation is the backbone of blood centre services. Every blood centre follows standard operative techniques, for component preparation and accepts units with match quality uses for patient services. For component preparation units specific equipment named a refrigerated centrifuge machine is used, which works on the principle of centrifugal force and centripetal force. The best programming defined the above quality standard for every separated unit. The objective of the above study is the evaluation of programming of component preparation over centripetal, centrifugal forces acceleration, and deceleration with time intervals.&nbsp; Selection for the best program, which would matches the standard.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study was observed over two different highly specialized equipment refrigerated cytocentrifuge machines known as (<em>Rota Silenta</em> and Thremofisher centrifuge), they are programmed for component preparation. Various programming followed by their Acceleration, Deceleration, Mid-interval Time, RPM, RCF, and Gravitational force,(G) were studied. Prepared products (PRBC, FFP, PC and WBC), their quality frequency was checked with a Fully Automated Hematology Analyzer evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>HERAEUS CRYOFUGE 16 Centrifuge results outcome was better compared to ROTA SILENTA 630 RS. The best programming of Heraeus croyofuge ACCELERATION (8) mins, DACCELARTION (8) mins and mid-interval (3) mins RPM,2350 and 3450 of 30 cm radius G Computed RCF was 2096 and 4018 noted. The above programming gives the best yield of platelets-287ug/dl, least contamination of FFP of RBC (.01) and platelets (24) ug/dl, prepared PRBC was HCT (69%), RBC was (9.6) ug/dl, and platelets contamination was (186) ug/dl. Among ROTA SILENTA best programmed was Acceleration (8), MID-Interval (3) and Deceleration (4) mins at RPM (2190,3250) with radius ( 29.5) cm along&nbsp; G computed RCF(1342,3018)noted respectively, which gave best product after processing.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Section of best programming meets the quality standard and produces the best efficacy in terms of platelets preparation (yield), (hematocrit)-and PRBC preparation. Prepared FFP was less contaminated with RBC and matched with the defined log reduction of WBC. The selection of programming can enhance the quality criteria and meet the above standard product.</p> Neha Singh, Bankim Das, Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Lahare, Shweta Ranjan, Nishith Nayan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/215 Mon, 04 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence, Attitudes and Smoking Habits among Healthcare Professionals in Southwest Nigeria https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/217 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Smoking among healthcare professionals poses significant challenges to public health efforts, particularly in regions like Southwest Nigeria, where smoking prevalence remains relatively high despite tobacco control measures. Understanding the prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among healthcare professionals is crucial for designing effective tobacco control interventions.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among 800 healthcare professionals in Southwest Nigeria. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking habits, attitudes towards smoking, workplace environment, and lifestyle factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0, including descriptive statistics and chi-square tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of smoking among healthcare professionals was 9.13%, with 31.75% being former smokers and 59.12% never smoked. Factors significantly associated with smoking prevalence included gender (p &lt; 0.001), age (p = 0.016), occupation (p = 0.037), education level (p = 0.049), years of experience (p = 0.025), beliefs about smoking harms (p &lt; 0.001), and attitudes towards workplace smoking policies (p &lt; 0.001). Most participants believed smoking was harmful (76.25%) and could adversely affect professional performance (68.38%). However, only 4.92% had participated in smoking cessation programs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Despite high awareness of smoking harms, a significant proportion of healthcare professionals in Southwest Nigeria smoke. Workplace environment and attitudes towards smoking cessation programs are critical determinants of smoking behaviour. Strengthening tobacco control policies, promoting smoking cessation interventions, and creating supportive workplace environments are essential for reducing smoking prevalence among healthcare professionals in Nigeria.</p> Oluwaseun R. Omole, Nasiru B. Zurmi, Isaiah O. Abali, Augustine I. Airaodion Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/217 Thu, 07 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison between Widal Test and Stool Culture in the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in the Clinical Set-Up in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/219 <p>Among Enterobacteriacae are causative agents of typhoid fever, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi , a common infection among the inhabitants of Bayelsa State and in Nigeria at large. The aim of this study was to compare the widal test and stool culture for adopting better technique in the diagnosis of Salmonella species and its antibiotic susceptibility evaluation in the clinical setup in Bayelsa. A total of four hundred 400 {stool 200} {blood 200} samples collected from Diete Koki Memorial Hospital, Niger Delta University clinic and Federal Medical Centre, Bayelsa State were immediately taken to the medical microbiology laboratory, Niger Delta University for culture and serological test using Deoxycholate Citrate agar, Selenite-F broth and Smart Diagnostic Kit-Ref F-Kit8X5C.LOT:521-14 respectively. The standardized pure isolates to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard were subjected to gram staining, biochemical tests and susceptibility testing using Kirby Beur agar diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar. Findings showed that out of two hundred (200) stool samples analyzed, one hundred and twenty-four 124(62%) Salmonella species were isolated 44(22%) Proteus and 32(16%) Escherichia Coli. Of one hundred and twenty-four Salmonella species isolated, 44(35.5%) were Salmonella typhi, 52(42%) Salmonella paratyphi A, while 28(22.5%) were of other Salmonella Species. Serological test on 200 blood samples analyzed revealed eighty-eight 88(44%) Salmonella typhi, eight 8(4%) Salmonella paratyphi A, 12(6%) Salmonella paratyphi B and zero (0%) Salmonella paratyphi C. Serological testing revealed eighty- four 84(42%) negative titre level and some patients with positive serological test had positive stool culture, while some negative but had positive growth of Proteus specie and Escherichia Coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed ciprofloxacin as the most potent antibiotic with 100%, followed by ofloxacin 85% for salmonella infection and there was no significant difference at p=0.5 in their effectiveness. One hundred and twenty-four (124) patients were positive to cultural method and eighty-four 84 to serological method. Serological test detects early infection of Salmonella species while stool culture detects late infection (3weeks of incubation). These study has x-ray that both techniques (serological and cultural) should be adopted for effective diagnosis of Salmonella species in the health facilities. In conclusion serological test is Sensitive while stool culture is specific.</p> Oluwayemisi A. Olorode , Endurance B. Bokoru , Ebipadei Z. Bowei-Ofongo Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/219 Tue, 19 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Blood Donors in India during the Covid-19 Pandemic: A KAP Analysis Study https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/220 <p><strong>Background: </strong>An awareness of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of blood donors towards COVID-19 pandemic is essential to avoid blood inventory crisis. It is therefore necessary to gain a perspective on the impact of COVID-19 on attitude of blood donors and an understanding of the key aspects of their motivation.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A prospective longitudinal study was conducted at The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India over four months spanning over December 2021 to March 2022. The chi-square analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of knowledge, attitude &amp; practices of donors with their demographic parameters. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant at a confidence interval (CI) of 95%.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 632 donors were included in the study and assessed for donor attitude and fear factors related to blood donation during COVID-19 pandemic. The mean age of the study population was 31 years. In terms of donor attitude, most common positive attitude was that they “would donate blood in the blood center where mask and sanitizer are available for all staff and blood donors”. Most common negative attitude was that “they had been in close contact with a patient who had a respiratory infection, so they should not donate blood”. Among the demographic variables, residential status, education &amp; donation frequency showed a significant (p &lt;0.05) association with donor attitude factors while its association with age and gender was found to be statistically insignificant (p &gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Adequate sharing of information and proper communication of the precautionary measures at blood centers to contain the spread of covid-19 infection and effective counseling would help in motivating and retaining blood donors. Interventions should be implemented directed at donor population to create awareness and neutralize the myths associated with blood donation during COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Pandeep Kaur, Romesh Jain , Rakesh Kumar , Bala Bhaskar , Satish Kumar , Shweta Ranjan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/220 Fri, 22 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization and Preliminary Structural Elucidation of Flavonoids in the Seed of Telfairia occidentalis https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/221 <p>Flavonoids are a group of plant compounds with a potential health benefits, including ant-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. This study aimed to characterize the flavonoids in the seed of Telfaria Occidentalis using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and Ultraviolet(UV) analysis.</p> <p>Telfaria Occidentalis was extracted using methanol, and the extracts were analyzed using TLC and UV. The retention factors (Rf) of the flavonoids were determined, and the UV spectra were compared to those of standard compounds.</p> <p>The TLC analysis revealed the presence of four flavonoids in the extracts of Telfaria Occidentalis, with Rf values of 6.00, 26.00, 37.00, 63.00 which were consistent with Vitexin, Gossypetin, Quercetin, and Kaempetrol respectively. The UV spectra of these compounds were also consistent with these flavonoids. These results shows that Telfaria Occidentalis is rich in flavonoids with potential health benefits. However, further research are needed to confirm the structures and chemical bonds of these flavonoids.</p> Samuel Nzube Nwosu Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/221 Fri, 22 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Determinants of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Subjects with Hypertension in a Tertiary Centre in South East Nigeria https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/222 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To study the prevalence and determinants of the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with hypertension (HTN).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Two hundred and fifty patients visiting the medical outpatient Clinic at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital in Southeast Nigeria were interviewed. Information was obtained on the patients' demographics, type(s), duration, pattern and disclosure of CAM use, sources of recommendation and reasons for using CAM.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence of CAM use was 4.4%. The most commonly used CAM was biologic-based therapy; bitter leaf (Vernonia amigdalina) (90.9%), Ginger (90.9%), garlic (72.7%), Cinnamon (45.5%), bitter kola (Garcinia kola) (36.4%), lemon grass (9.1%), green tea (9.1%), guava (9.1%) and mango leaves (9.1%). This was followed by manipulative and body-based (exercise and relaxation), and then spiritual method (fasting and prayer). Most subjects used CAM concurrently with orthodox medicine (63.6%), and neither knew the constituent of what they were taking (72.7%) nor revealed to their healthcare provider (HCP) that they were on CAM (81.8%). The most common reason for the non-disclosure is that the HCP will discourage them (66.7%). Most subjects used CAM to manage hypertension (54.5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A proportion of patients receiving orthodox medication for HTN also use CAM. A better treatment outcome would emanate from education of HCP and the general public on CAM use, legislation on the control of unwholesome and harmful use of CAM, and well-funded research on proven and potential CAM modalities for the benefit of humanity.</p> Michael Chinweuba Abonyi, Theophilus Ejiofor Ugwu , Chidiebele Malachy Ezeude, Valentine Chidiebere Ugwueze, Ngozi Ijeoma Okoro , Christian Chukwuemeka Eze, Uzoma Chukwunonso Okechukwu , Fintan Chinweike Ekochin, Gesiye Esimamidida Bozimo, Kariba Akhidue , Chidinma Brenda Nwatu , Ekenechukwu Esther Young Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/222 Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Possible Effect of Cinnamomum camphora on Pain Amelioration and Pain Threshold in Mechanically Induced Pain in Female Wistar Rats https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/224 <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Camphor, a long-standing chemical used in various home treatments, has been extensively studied for its antibacterial, antipruritic, and contraceptive properties, and is a key ingredient in topical home treatments. The study investigated the possible effect of <em>Cinnamomum camphora</em> essential oil on pain amelioration and pain threshold in mechanically induced pain in female Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> the study involves 25 adult Wistar rats, divided into five groups and each group was administered different milliliters of <em>Cinnamomum camphora, </em>except for group 1, pains were induced in the rats via experimental procedure; passive avoidance, paw withdrawer test, and tail clip test. Data obtained were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Group 2 showed a significant increase in avoidance time, a significant increase in pain threshold, and a significant decrease in pain sensitivity compared to the control group. The reverse was the case of group 4 when compared to the control group. Interestingly, the effects of <em>C. camphora </em>oil were more on the low-dose group than on the high-dose group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> These results suggest that <em>C. camphora </em>has an analgesic effect and is dose-dependent.</p> Kanayo Mercy Odia, Ezon-Ebidor Innocent Edibamode Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/224 Fri, 05 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Moving forward in Low Resource Setting, Southern Nigeria: The Benefit of Otoscopy https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/225 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Otological conditions abound in the society. Many individuals both in rural and urban communities are unreached while some are unreachable. Most of these individuals are not aware of specialist care. Those aware do not know what to do and how to go about their problems, justifying this study.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to identify common otological conditions and asymptomatic otological conditions; and to profer solutions to identified conditions in rural and urban settings in Edo and Ondo states respectively.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study is a 3- year prospective comparative study done in Edo State and Ondo State, from December 2019 to March 2022. It commenced after due ethical considerations, informed consent and permissions.&nbsp; Study centres were St. Matthias Catholic Church, Ologbo and Egbaen Community in Edo State; Oba Osemawe Palace and Kaftan TV in Ondo state, both in southern Nigeria. Total population study technique was used. Sample size was determined using Cochran formula. One hundred and forty- two individuals participated. Health education was given, a brief history was taken, thereafter, otoscopy was done. Each ear was considered a separate entity, giving a total of two hundred and eighty- four (284) ears examined. Data realized were statistically analyzed using SPSS Version 23. P value &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pathologies identified were treated accordingly.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Age ranged from 1 to 95years. 84 females and 58 males participated. F: M = 1.4:1. Commonest otological condition was otitis media with effusion (17.96%) in both settings. Among the least were Complicated Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Otomycosis and Tympanic Membrane Perforation.</p> <p>Predominant asymptomatic condition was Cerumen Auris (7.39%), least was foreign bodies (1.06%). Correlation between rural and urban findings were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Otologic conditions are common in both rural and urban settings including asymptomatic presentations.</p> <p>Much can be achieved with simple instrument (otoscope). Hence, a call for researchers to begin with simple tools available. Don’t wait for sophisticated instruments.</p> Akpalaba I.O., Olarinoye T.O. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/225 Tue, 23 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding Delays in CT Management for Traumatic Head Injuries: The Impact of Social Factors https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/228 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Head injury is defined as any injury that causes lesion or functional damage to the cranium, meninges and brain. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Young males are mostly involved in cases of head injury, likely due to increased activity associated with this group. Common causes of head injury include road traffic accidents (RTA), assaults, and falls from height and stab wounds. In Nigeria, road traffic accidents are the leading cause of head injuries. Cranial CT has been established as an accurate and fast diagnostic imaging modality in the management of head injury. Many factors have been seen to affect the management of head injury with the leading factors being admission into a private/peripheral hospital lacking CT facility, followed by financial constraints. </p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The main goal of this study was to determine the major causes of delay in patients’ presentation for CT examination following head injury.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This was a prospective study of head injury patients referred for cranial CT evaluation at the Department of Radiology, NAUTH, Nnewi, carried out for a period of two years from 2017 to 2019. A total of 170 patients were involved in the study. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients or their relatives. The patients were scanned with a GE Bright speed 4-slice CT machine.</p> <p><strong>Data Analysis</strong>: Data processing and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20.0. Socio-demographic and other relevant characteristics were displayed in tables and charts.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>77.6% of subjects in this study were males. The mean age of the patients was 34.31<u>+</u> 21.08 years, with an age range of 6 months to 90 years. The modal age group affected was 21 – 30 years which constituted 23.5% of the study population. Motor-cycle road traffic accident (42.3%) was the most common mechanism of head injury seen in our setting, while sports-related injury (0.6%) was the least common mechanism of injury in this study. The leading social factor that causes delay in CT management of head injury is admission into a private/peripheral hospital lacking CT facility followed by cost of the investigation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The leading cause of delay to CT management of patients with head injury is admission into a private/peripheral hospital followed by financial constraints and other factors like the lack of awareness of the role of CT in the management of head injury by patients and their relatives, the fact that the few CT centers available are not easily accessible to many of the referring doctors and the pitiable transport facilities with unavailability of ambulance services. Adequate awareness of role of CT and government intervention in subsidizing the cost in Government hospitals is advocated. We also recommend introducing targeted interventions in health care that will address health care access, health literacy, cultural beliefs and communication barriers. These measures in our health care systems can remarkably reduce these causes of delays, and improve the efficiency of care delivery for patients with traumatic head injury.</p> Kanayo G. Obieje, Michael E. Aronu , Catherine N. Obasikene , Chinekwu S. Nwosu , Samuel I. Udobi , Kenneth C. Eze Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/228 Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Chest Radiographic Findings and the Viral Load in Adult Patients with HIV/PTB Co-Infection https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/233 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to modify the radiographic pattern of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). <sup>&nbsp;</sup>There is an increase in the prevalence and transmission of multidrug-resistant and drug-resistant MTB strains worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the relationship between the chest radiographic findings of patients with HIV/PTB co-infection and the viral load.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a prospective study of 112 HIV/PTB co-infected subjects using chest radiographs at full inspiration and the viral load.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 112 Nigerian subjects with HIV/PTB co-infection, of which 79 (70.5%) had viral load &gt; 10,000 copies/ml, 41(36.6%) were females, and 38(33.9%) were males. Plasma viral load of 20-10,000 copies/ml showed 28(25%) male subjects and 14 (12.5%) female subjects. While viral load of &lt; 20copies/ml showed females 4(3.5%) and males 1(0.9%). For normal radiographs, 13(11%) subjects with viral load &gt; 10,000 copies/ml were seen while none were seen in subjects with &lt; 20 copies/ml with a p-value = 0.459. Opacities were seen in 60 (53.6%) of subjects with viral load &gt; 10,000 copies/ml and 4 (3.6%) of subjects with viral load &lt; 20 copies/ml with a p-value= 0.670. There was no significant relationship between the zonal distribution of opacities and the chest radiographic findings with the subjects’ viral load categories.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The chest radiographic findings did not show any significant differences in appearance in the different viral load categories of the subjects.</p> Uzukwu Ifeanyi Olisa, Nwosu, Chinekwu Skye, Nwabunike Munachi Onyebuchi, Isiakpu Idorenyin Okon, Obi-Nwosu Amaka Lovelyn Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/233 Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Perceptions and Opinions of Medical Professionals on Artificial Intelligence in Optimizing the Healthcare Sector https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/234 <p>The deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) in the healthcare sector in Nigeria is in an emerging and evolving state. Its use in the medical industry promises many benefits to all; however, AI has been adopted in medical practice primarily in developed countries. The rollout of AI in Nigeria depends on the readiness and level of acceptability of medical/health professionals, public opinion and government readiness to integrate the technology; hence this study is aimed to assess the awareness, level of perception and opinion on AI among Nigerian medical professionals.</p> <p>The study was a cross-sectional design conducted among medical professionals across various geopolitical zones in Nigeria using an online Google survey form adapted from a previous study. Data entry, coding and analysis were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 25.</p> <p>A total of two hundred and fourteen responses were received with a male-to-female ratio of 1.35:1, and the majority were medical students and interns between the 18–30 year age group. Almost all respondents are aware of AI however only 11.2% had some theoretical training on AI. The most common combined sources of AI awareness were the internet source (87.4%) and social media platforms (86.9%). Overall, 160 (75%) medical professionals showed good perceptions and opinions on AI. There was a significant correlation between the medical cadre and opinion level. Practitioners in the lower cadre have better opinions on AI and those working in private hospitals have better opinions than state and government hospital workers (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p>The advent of AI among medical professionals is welcoming, which implies their readiness to accept or adopt technological innovation in the medical sphere. More effort is required from the government to vest resources in this direction to actualize and upgrade the healthcare sector to internationally acceptable standards and practices.</p> Samson Ojedokun, Samson Afolabi , Oluwabori Olukoyejo , Taiwo Alatishe Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/234 Fri, 24 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Secondary Breast Angiosarcoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/214 <p>Angiosarcoma a very aggressive tumor of the vascular endothelium with a different clinical presentation that have been shown between primary and secondary patterns, but both represented a diagnostics challenge because of the nonspecific imaging finding in disease.</p> <p>Secondary angiosarcoma which is still a rare neoplasm presented in female patient as a palpable unilateral mass after long term exposure to radiation therapy for breast cancer, final diagnosis needs a pathological report which is obtained post-surgical that’s why preoperative diagnosis by using imaging modalities and biopsy is important to avoid misdiagnosis to this rare neoplasm.</p> <p>We reported a special case of 61 female patient with secondary angiosarcoma arises near the scar of previous breast surgery due to invasive ductal carcinoma, patient was exposed to radiation therapy, chemotherapy and have positive family history.</p> Woroud Raed Fauomi , Bushra Hussain Abu Zaid , Mohammad Saleh Alshare , Nizar Abu-oddos, Mohammad Abu-Jeyyab Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajmpcp.com/index.php/AJMPCP/article/view/214 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000