Open Access Case Report

A Case Report on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Iluru Umadevi, Bethe Mariamma, Peetla Dhanalakshmi, Nayakanti Himabindu

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 122-126

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, which is also called as Chronic Myeloid Leukemia is a white blood cell cancer. The main characteristic of this form of leukemia is chaotic increase in growth of myeloid cells in bone marrow. These cells get accumulated in blood. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder whereupon, proliferation of mature granulocytes (Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Basophils) and their precursors occurs. In this, translocation of chromosome called Philadelphia chromosome is characteristically found associated with myeloproliferative neoplasm. We report a case of 26 years old female patient who is having the clinical presentations of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. In this case, the patient is having the substantial increase in the white blood cell count and the conditions of Hepatomegaly, Splenomegaly and Grade-I bilateral parenchymal changes. The treatment given to the patient was mainly aimed to control and decrease the white blood cell count.

Open Access Short Research Article

Research Designs and Statistical Methods in Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal: A Review of Articles Published during 2010 to 2019

Myo -Khin, Le-Le- Win, Khin-May -Oo, San -Shwe, Ye -Htut, Aung-Myo -Min, Htain -Win

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 102-108

Aim: Several reviews had been reported on the design and statistics of medical journals worldwide.  However, assessment on the quality of research articles in a peer-reviewed health research journal locally widely published in Myanmar has never been carried out.

Study Design: Retrospective cross sectional study.

Methodology: The research designs and statistical procedures used in all research articles (n=391) published in the Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal (MHSRJ) from 2010 to 2019 were studied using a standardized checklist.

Results: Among the publications, commonly used study designs were descriptive (cross-sectional) studies (n=191,49%) and basic science (laboratory-based) studies (n=129, 33%). The remaining were analytical observational studies (n=49, 12%) and clinical trials (n=22, 6%). Statistical analysis was not carried out in 89 studies (22%) of the published articles as the data generated from those studies were mainly qualitative data. Parametric data analysis methods were used in 206 papers (64%). Most of the statistical methods used were basic statistics, contingency table analyses, epidemiological statistics, t-test, correlation and regression analysis, totaling 77% of the statistically tests.   Assumption was not mentioned in 60% of papers using non-parametric analysis.  Although, it was observed that over 92% (n=363) of the articles fully reported the sampling unit and study area/site, only a few (16%, n=57) mentioned the sample size calculation.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that a reader with knowledge on descriptive statistics, analysis of contingency tables, epidemiological methods, t – tests and regression analysis will then have complete statistical access to 77% of the articles published in the MHSRJ. Deficiencies in the research design and statistical analysis need to be corrected for the improvement in the quality of articles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative effects of Carica Papaya, Avocado Pear and Ginger Extracts on the Histological Structure of the Pancreas of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Joseph Ozegbe Ebifa, H. M. D. Kemzi Elechi-Amadi, H. M. D. Chiamaka Abiakam, Ojoye N. Briggs

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 1-11

Introduction: The increasing global prevalence of diabetes mellitus requires a holistic approach for its management. This study was carried out to compare the effects of Carica papaya (Pawpaw) leaves, Persea americana (Avocado pear) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on the histological structure of the pancreas of Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic wistar rats.

Methodology: Fifty (50) male wistar rats with weights ranging from 170-250g were used for this study. They were divided into five groups (I, II, III, IV, and V) of 10 rats each. Groups II, III, IV and V were given 50 mg/kg STZ freshly dissolved in 0.1M citrate buffer (PH 4.5) in a volume of 1ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally to induce diabetes mellitus while Group A served as non-diabetic controls while Group B served positive controls. Group C, D, and E were given 3g/100ml body weight of freshly prepared of aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves, Avocado Pear and Ginger respectively. The treatment continued for 28 days, then rats were anesthetized, and their pancreas were extirpated and processed for light microscopic examinations. The blood glucose levels were determined, and the weights were also taken at baseline and during the treatment. 

Results: The STZ-induced rats exhibited hyperglycemia accompanied with increases in glucose and loss in body weight. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves, Avocado Pear and Ginger were found effective in lowering serum glucose and returned the weight of treated diabetic rats to almost original values. Microscopic examination of the pancreatic sections of diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves, Avocado Pear and Ginger revealed regeneration of islet of langerhans compared with the untreated diabetic group. Although the three plants have regenerative abilities on islets of Langerhans, Carica papaya has more regenerative potentials than the other two plants. 

Conclusion: Results from this study showed that treatment with aqueous extracts from Carica papaya, Avocado Pear, and Ginger were effective in lowering hyperglycemia Spreptozotocin-induced  diabetic Wistar rats. 

Recommendation: The herbal plants used for this study should be used as candidate substances for the development of regimens for the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Molecular Identification and Plasmid Profiling of Staphylococcus Species from Nasal Carriage of University Some Students of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

U. Oparaodu, N. N. Odu, G. A. Uzah

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 12-20

Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus species is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, This study was aimed to isolation, molecularly identify, and profile the plasmid of Staphylococcus species from the nasal carriage of some University students of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Fifty (50) Nasal swab samples were collected from the anterior nares of some students of Rivers State University using sterile cotton swabs. The samples were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus species using standard bacteriological methods by streaking on mannitol salt agar and incubated for 24 hours at 37.2⁰C.  Identification and plasmid proofing of the isolated Staphylococcus species were carried out using genomics studies. The results showed that 48 out of the 50 samples examined were positive Staphylococcus species which includes Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus simulans , Staphylococcus sciuri, and Staphylococcus Camosus, this indication that Staphylococcus species does not only colonize sick or individuals with the sign of infection but also healthy individual, The results of plasmid profiling of the five Staphylococcus species revealed that all the species posses plasmid which is capable to enhance their resistance to the commonly used antibiotics The presence of these Staphylococcus species is a serious public concern because even though only S. aureus is the only known human pathogen others could be opportunistic pathogens. Therefore continuous surveillance and improvement of personal hygiene standards among students is highly recommended such as hand washing with soap and warm water since Staphylococcus species can quickly be spread among students.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Diagnostic Accuracy of Cryohaemolysis in Hereditary Spherocytosis

Gunawardena Dammika, Velu Manodarshani

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 21-28

Introduction: Hereditary spherocytosis (HS), a heterogenous disorder, requires a screening test with high predictive value in the absence of a family history and when diagnosis is equivocal. This study evaluates the validity and reliability of cryohaemolysis test (CHT) as a cost-effective, sensitive, and specific method in the diagnosis.

Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was done with a sample size of 62 divided between two groups. One group had diagnosed patients and their relatives with HS and the other group had spherocytes due to other causes.

Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the CHT were 100% and 93.5% respectively. The predictive value of a positive and negative test was 93.9% and 100% respectively. The false negative and positive percentages were zero and 6.45, respectively. The CHT is affected neither by the number of reticulocytes nor spherocytes. The percentage of cryohaemolysis varied among the affected individuals of the same family.

Conclusion: Our study showed that CHT is ideal in identifying patients and silent carriers as a quick, simple and economical method. The test is highly sensitive and specific making it the right choice for developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Latency to Peak Electromyographic Activation in Lower Limb Movement Patterns Described by Kabat: Timing of Selected Muscles

Marysol Valencia- Buitrago, Julialba Castellanos- Ruiz, Julio Ernesto Pérez- Parra

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 29-42

Objective: To determine the activation sequence of selected muscles, in supine and standing positions, by means of the latency to peak electromyographic (EMG) activation in the movement patterns of the lower extremities described by Kabat.

Methods: A comparative analytical study was conducted with an intentional sample of healthy adults between 18 and 25 years old, 20 men and 20 women with right foot dominance. Three active repetitions of the two lower limb diagonals were performed, in both supine and standing positions. The latency to peak EMG activation for eight muscles in the four movement patterns was recorded by surface electromyography. The sequence of contractions was determined by means with their 95% confidence intervals. Tests of homogeneity between positions were carried out.

Results: In most patterns, a sequence of proximal to distal contractions was observed. Significant differences between supine and standing positions were only evident in nine of the 64 trajectories studied (p<0,05).

Conclusions: These results partially contradict the theory of normal timing that postulates that the sequence of muscle contractions is performed from distal to proximal. Future studies should include a greater number of muscles and assess other variables such as the first contraction evidenced in the electromyographic tracing.

Impact Statement: The variability found in the sequence of maximum muscle activation during the execution of lower limbs movement patterns described by Kabat, suggests that the concept of normal timing is linked to the execution of a facilitation technique through a pattern, and not to the pattern itself. This depends on the objective of the task and the individual characteristics of the subject. The need to individualize the normal timing and adapt the timing for emphasis according to each person is evident.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating ill- Psychosocial Issues among HIV Discordant and Concordant Couples: A Mixed Method Cross-Sectional Comparative Study

Chinomnso C. Nnebue, Adaeze N. Anaekwe, Chidebe O. Anaekwe

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 43-53

Background: Successful practical intervention strategies thrive on shared responsibility and global solidarity. Understanding of psychosocial status of this high-risk group could inform measures that sustain self-care and maximize benefits from antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Objective: To determine and compare the ill- psychosocial issues and challenges of HIV discordant and concordant couples in comprehensive health centers in Anambra, Nigeria.

Materials and methods: A mixed method cross--sectional comparative study of 289 (148 HIV-concordant and 141 HIV-discordant) couples, selected by two- stage sampling. Quantitative data were collected by interview using semi-structured questionnaire and analysed with statistical package for social sciences version 22.0. Chi-square and Fishers exact tests were used as appropriate, to determine associations between variables and p values < 0.05 were significant.  Qualitative information was obtained by focus group discussions (FGDs).

Results: Uncertainty and anxiety/ fear constitute the commonest form of ill psychological feelings in 189(65.4%) male and 102(35.3%) female respondents, with more of the males being in discordant relationships (p=0.018). Also, 138(46.0%) had discrimination from the family, more on the discordant (p=0.000). Again, more of discordant couples faced discrimination at the workplace, emotional problems related to HIV; difficulty with adherence to ART and problem with sexuality in marriage (p<0.05) respectively.

Conclusions: This study reveals that both sets of couples, though more on the discordant side, faced uncertainty, anxiety/fear, then stigma and discrimination from the family, workplace, etc. Improved sustained sero- status based counselling and psycho- social support is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Valsalva Maneuver on Pain Perception among Adult Patients Undergoing Spinal Procedures

Premalatha Paulsamy, Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani, Ghadah Mohammed Al-Asbi, Krishnaraju Venkatesan, Pranave Sethuraj, Kumarappan Chidambaram

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 54-58

In a healthcare setting, procedure pain is a common source of discomfort for patients. One of the non-pharmacological approaches for reducing severe pain is the Valsalva Maneuver (VM). VM also significantly minimizes the pain produced by skin puncturing during spinal injection. This study was conducted to assess the effect of Valsalva maneuver on pain perception among adult patients undergoing spinal procedures. A quasi- experimental, with posttest only control group design was adopted for this study. Fifty adult patients who were selected using the convenient sampling technique and were taught about the VM procedure by blowing into sphygmomanometer tubing and hold the mercury line up to 30 mm Hg for a period of minimum 20 seconds. The numeric rating scale (NRS) was used immediately after the spinal puncture. The results indicates that there is statistically significant reduction in pain among patients who performed VM (p=0.001). The study concludes that the VM can be included routine protocol to reduce pain during any procedures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Controlled Breathing Exercise on Dyspnea in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Premalatha Paulsamy, Krishnaraju Venkatesan, Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani, Pranave Sethuraj, Rajalakshimi Vasudevan

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 59-64

COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is one of the most frequent life-threatening disorders afflicting people all over the world. COPD patients have increased work of breath and dyspnea as a result of pathophysiological changes in the airway, tissue, and vascular supply to the lungs. These changes increase airway resistance and air trapping, and decrease lung compliance, resulting in higher work of breath and discomfort. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of controlled breathing on dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).A quasi experimental design was used with purposive sampling technique with 25 patients in each study and control group. Breathing pattern was assessed through modified Borg dyspnea scale. The obtained t value between the control and study groups was 2.64 and 2.07 respectively, which was significant at the p=0.05 level, which shows that the controlled breathing exercise was more beneficial for the study group in lowering dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The study concluded that the controlled breathing is more effective in improving the level of dyspnea among COPD patients and this can be given as a regular treatment options for them to improve their lung compliance

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychometric Properties of Sleep Behavior Questionnaire among Bengali Population

Poulam Guha, Shreya Tripathi, Biswaroop Chandra, Shabnam Zahir

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 65-72

Aim: Numerous important biological functions in the human body are regulated by adequate amount of sleep. Manifestations of poor sleep are often misconceived as behavioural issues, cognitive dysfunction or systemic health concerns, which may present differently in adults and children. Sleep Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ) is an assessment tool mostly filled by parents regarding their childs sleep behaviour and patterns. The present study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the SBQ in relation to the Bengali population.

Place and Duration: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences & Research, Panihati, Sodepur, Kolkata from November 2020 till December 2020.

Materials and Methods: SBQ was the assessment tool used. The original questionnaire was sent to a bilingual teacher (English-Bengali) for translation into Bengali (version1, V1). V1 was given to a Bengali language teacher for semantic correction and idiosyncratic variants (version 2, V2). In collaboration with a researcher and other mental health care professionals, V2 was compared to the final version of Bengali. The scale was then translated into the original (English) language. The final version was used for the study and was filled up by guardians of 50 children aged between 6 to 13 years. Data were tabulated and analyzed and the statistical methods used were Cronbachs alpha and Content Validity Ratio.

Results: To ensure validity, Content Validity Ratio was checked and most items in the questionnaire were acceptable as per experts. To ensure reliability, Cronbachs alpha was calculated and the value was 0.778.

Conclusion: The SBQ can be used with respect to the Bengali population as the findings support the psychometric properties of the questionnaire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patients' Perceptions of the Role of Nurse Practitioners in the Polyclinic of Tamale Teaching Hospital in Ghana

Kennedy Asuo-Tannor, Abubakari Yussif, Ruth Nimota Nukpezah

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 73-82

Background: The global annual growth of the nurse practitioner (NP) workforce is estimated to be three to nine times greater than that of physicians. Also, there are inconsistencies in survey reports on patient encounters during visits to the nurse practitioner.  To bridge this gap and improve role expectations and performance, establishing a survey report on Patients' perceptions of the role of nurse practitioners is of interest to the health workforce.

Aims: To assess patients' perceptions of the role of nurse practitioners in the Polyclinic of Tamale Teaching Hospital in Ghana.

Methods: From July to September 2021, a face-to-face survey of 228 patients who visited a nurse practitioner at the Tamale Teaching Hospital was conducted. The patient's perceptions of the role of nurse practitioners were investigated using a validated self-report questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and the STROBE checklist as a reporting standard.

Results: The results showed that the majority of respondents perceived nurse practitioners to have a role in supervising other nurses (89.9%), performing certain diagnostic tests (87.7%), developing a plan to take care of the patient and put that plan into action (93.8%). The majority of respondents 219 (96.1%) who have been cared for by nurse practitioners were satisfied with the care given by the nurse practitioner. However, (74.6%) of respondents were unsure whether it is the role of nurse practitioners in assessing all information gathered to determine the patient's health. The age of respondents and religious affiliation was significant (p = 0.000). However, the sex of respondents had no statistically significant (p = 0.127), connection with their satisfaction with care provided by a nurse practitioner.

Conclusions: The majority of the participants seeking health care were satisfied with nurse practitioners’ services. Thus, it is advised that nurse practitioners should continue to exhibit actions that are suitable for their role to the general population. The most fundamental method is for them to demonstrate this via their behaviours and practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Velvet Tamarind (Dialium guineense Wild) Fruit is Potent against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

Augustine I. Airaodion, Simeon O. Oluba, Ayodeji A. Adedeji, Sunday A. Emaleku, Ojo J. Osunmuyiwa, Anthony U. Megwas, Emmanuel B. Ayita

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 83-88

Background: Velvet tamarind has become notable for its nutritional composition. Its conjointly been legendary to contain phytochemicals and pharmaceutical agents.

Aim: This study was designed to examine the bactericide activity of velvet tamarind fruit.

Methodology: Nutrient agar was used to prepare the medium for the growth of the bacteria. Pure cultures of C. bacillus, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. aureus, Strep. viridians, S. typhi, and E. coli were obtained from the Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology Department of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Serial dilution was conducted on the extracts in the order of 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.125% solutions respectively. A sterilized 9 mL paper discs soaked within the diluted extracts were placed on the plate and cultured for 24 hours in an ambient temperature. The leaves were examined for clear zones of inhibition. The presence of zones of inhibition indicated activity and was measured.

Results: The two extracts of velvet tamarind fruit exhibited bactericide activities against C. bacillus, S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. viridians, S. typhi, and E. coli and also, repressed their growth. The effect of extract from ethanol was more significant than the extract from the aqueous solution of Velvet tamarind fruit.

Conclusion: The present study showed that velvet tamarind fruit has the ability to inhibit the expansion of all the microorganisms investigated, with the ethanolic extract considered to be more effective in exerting bactericide effect than the extract from the aqueous solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Morinda Lucida Leaf Extract on Ibuprofen Induced Nephrotoxicity Albino Rats

Nkiruka Millicent Amadi, Peter Uwadiegwu Achukwu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Nonyelum V. Anoh

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 89-95

Morinda lucida ethanol stem bark extract dilution of ((500, 1000, 1500) mg /kg) body weight were administered to B1, B2, B3 groups subjected to ibuprofen induced nephrotoxicity. Histomorphological studies on target organ; kidney were harvested, weighed and processed. Ibuprofen toxic activities of the extracts treated groups (serum biochemical markers) and the relative organ index (ρ<0.05) in treated groups respectively produce significant changes. Target organ extract examinations offered some protection on glomerular and tubular degenerative changes while there are deterioration changes in B groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Knowledge of Tuberculosis among HIV Patients Accessing Care at Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

E. C. Iwuoha

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 96-101

Background: TB infection is one of the leading causes of death among HIV patients because of  the burden of TB HIV co-infection on the immunity of affected persons. Estimation of the prevalence of TB among these clients will enhance screening, early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, knowledge of TB among these clients is of relevance to their care.

Objectives: The study aimed at assessing the prevalence and knowledge of tuberculosis among HIV patients accessing care at Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) Aba.

Materials and Methods: This was an institutional-based cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 315 patients who accessed HIV care at Abia State University Teaching Hospital from June to September 2019. Data was obtained from the patients using semi-structured questionnaires which were self- administered within the period of study and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22.0. Statistical significance was set at P-value of < 0.05.

Results: A total of 315 HIV patients assessing care at ABSUTH participated in the study; 66.0% were females and 34.0% were males with 40.0% within the age of 26-35 and about 40.0% were married. All the patients had heard of tuberculosis and 43.8% knew the cause of tuberculosis while 56.8% knew how it could be contracted. Prevalence of TB in the study population was 30.8%. Patient’s educational level and awareness of risk of TB among HIV patients showed statistically significant relationship with previous treatment for TB (p=0.03 and 0.04 respectively).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dysmenorrhea on Academic and Social Activities of Students in Tertiary Institutions in an Urban City, South East Nigeria

E. C. Iwuoha

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 109-115

Background: Dysmenorrhoea is a medical condition that has physiological and psychological effects on females who suffer it. Dysmenorrhoea is still an important public health                 problem which has negative impact on female health and social relationships, school and work activities.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dysmenorrhea on the academic and social activities of female students in tertiary institutions in Aba.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among female students from four tertiary institutions in Aba in Abia State South East Nigeria from June to August2019. Information on socio-demographic variables, prevalence of dysmenorrhoea and effects on academic and social life was obtained from consenting students using structured, self-administered pretested questionnaires. Data collected was cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Level of statistical significance was set at P< 0.05.

Results: Out of the 400 questionnaires that were properly filled and retrieved, Dysmenorrhoea was reported in 288 (72%) of the participants. About half of these students with dysmenorrhoea (49.2%) reported being absent from school on account of the pain, 228 (79.1%) reported inability to concentrate in class during the menstrual pain and decreased school performance was recorded in 89 (30.9%). Adverse effects on daily routine were noted in 232 (80.7%) and affected social activities in 216 respondents (75%). A statistically significant association was found between age at menarche and absenteeism (P=0.001).

Open Access Original Research Article

Smart Phone Ownership and Usage amongst House Officers at the Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Nigeria

Nwolisa Emeka, Ikejiaku Udochikwuka, Asinobi Kingsley, Emerenini Frank, Nwigwe Uloma

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 116-121

Background: Smart phones are becoming increasingly available and are now  steadily  becoming  an essential tool for accessing clinical information, especially for younger health professionals and trainees. In Nigeria, House officers are first level medical practitioners who have just left medical  school, and are beginning their professional  life under supervision in designated health facilities  prior to full registration by the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria. 

Aim: This study sought to document the ownership and use to which smart phones were put by this group of young health professionals.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out between September and October 2018. The study instrument was a structured questionnaire which was administered to the study participants during the weekly departmental clinical meetings which is compulsory for all house officers. Descriptive analysis was done for continuous variables .Charts were used to analyze some discrete and continuous variables. Spearmann correlation coefficient was used to test the strength and direction of association among groups. Statistical significance was set at p-value <0.05.    

Result: Sixty eight doctors participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 23 to 36 years with a mean of 28.2years. All had smart phones and 59( 86.8%)  had Smart phone applications installed in their phones. WhatsApp was the most frequently used social media app but closely followed by Facebook and email apps. Twitter was the least utilized app. The commonest use to which  smart phones were put was to check up drug doses and the least common use was to watch live matches and movies.

There was a significant positive correlation between average data use/month and  number of WhatsApp group, number of Facebook group and time spent on phone. Number of WhatsApp group had a higher significant influence on monthly data use (rho 0.359, p value 0.001) than number of Facebook groups (rho 0.331, p value 0.016). 

Conclusion: This study shows a very high ownership of smart phones which in addition to being used to access the social media is also used to access medical information required for learning and care of patients. It would   be ideal though as a follow-up to document medical apps that have been found most useful by this group of young health professionals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Role of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) In Asaba, Nigeria

Ebifa Ozegbe Joseph, Chiamaka Abiakam, Kemzi N. Elechi-Amadi, Lynda Kadi Giami, Ojoye N. Briggs

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 127-131

Introduction: The role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) has been with the people for a long time. This cross-sectional study involved 200 women (11 - 46 years) meeting the inclusion criteria for the study.

Methodology: Information and data for this study were obtained using structured questionnaires.

Result: Results from the study indicated a high (70.0%) knowledge of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Although, perception about Traditional Birth Attendants practices was poor, the role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the improvement of maternal and child health in rural Nigeria cannot be ignored.

Conclusion: TBAs remain major health resources in rural communities in developing countries as well as some parts of urban areas. Efforts need to be harnessed for training of Traditional Birth Attendants through the involvement of the Ministry of Health and Primary Health Care facilities close to their area of practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Usage of Herbal Medicine among Pregnant Women in Asaba, Delta State

Joseph Ozegbe Ebifa, Ojoye N. Briggs, Chiamaka Abiakam, Kemzi Elechi-Amadi

Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice, Page 132-138

Introduction: In the past two decades, the use of herbal medicines has grown considerably worldwide, especially among pregnant women. Herbal medicines are plant-derived materials or preparations that have therapeutic benefits. This study was aimed at determining the proportion, prevalence of use, attitude and knowledge base of pregnant women in Asaba, Nigeria vis a vis use of herbal medicines and potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus.

Methodology: This study was performed at Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Delta State. A sample size of 400 pregnant women attending clinic at the facility was used for this study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect information to evaluate the attitude of respondents towards use of herbal medicine. The instrument which took about ten minutes to complete contained mostly close-ended questions, including Likert Attitudinal Scale and straight dichotomous questions. Three hundred and ninety three (393) questionnaires were completed, giving a response rate of over 99 percent.

Results: From the data, 266 (66.5%) respondents were in the age range 21-30 years old. Also, 163 (40.8%) had up to secondary level of education. On marital status, 393 (98.3%) were married. The data from the study also showed that 270 (67.5%), had used herbal medicines at one time or another within the period of the study, in the crude form that was prepared by respondents or as packaged herbal or dietary/nutritional supplements. This gives the prevalence of use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Asaba to be 67.5%. Also, 324 (81.0%), were of the opinion that herbal medicines could be effective, 24 (6.1%) did not believe in the efficacy of herbal remedies, while the remaining 52 (12.9%) were not sure of the efficacy. Out of the 307 respondents who had used herbs prior or during the present pregnancy, 55 (18.0%) had experienced some form of untoward effects post administration of herbal medicines. The side effects experienced included vomiting 20 (36.9%), dizziness 13 (23.3%), malaise 7 (13.7%), headache 7 (13.7%), rashes 5 (8.2%) and diarrhea 3 (4.1%). One hundred and sixteen of the total respondents (29.0%) were using herbal medicine at the time of the study and believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe, though with different primary reasons for taking the herbal medicine of choice.

Conclusion: From this study it was seen that the use of herbal medicines by pregnant women in Asaba was seen to be quite high. Many of the patients who participated in this study seem to have confidence in the efficacy of herbal remedies and found them helpful as a cost effective and accessible alternative treatment.